Merge lp:~chris787/installation-guide/ubuntu-18.04-changed-supported-hw into lp:~ubuntu-core-dev/installation-guide/ubuntu

Proposed by christophe dumont on 2018-05-15
Status: Needs review
Proposed branch: lp:~chris787/installation-guide/ubuntu-18.04-changed-supported-hw
Merge into: lp:~ubuntu-core-dev/installation-guide/ubuntu
Diff against target: 21725 lines (+20898/-0)
159 files modified
fr/administrivia/administrivia.xml (+169/-0)
fr/appendix/chroot-install.xml (+765/-0)
fr/appendix/files.xml (+323/-0)
fr/appendix/gpl.xml (+525/-0)
fr/appendix/plip.xml (+187/-0)
fr/appendix/pppoe.xml (+109/-0)
fr/appendix/preseed.xml (+1784/-0)
fr/appendix/random-bits.xml (+11/-0)
fr/bookinfo.xml (+76/-0)
fr/boot-installer/accessibility.xml (+197/-0)
fr/boot-installer/arm.xml (+524/-0)
fr/boot-installer/boot-installer.xml (+49/-0)
fr/boot-installer/hppa.xml (+12/-0)
fr/boot-installer/ia64.xml (+464/-0)
fr/boot-installer/intro-cd.xml (+35/-0)
fr/boot-installer/intro-firmware.xml (+18/-0)
fr/boot-installer/intro-hd.xml (+16/-0)
fr/boot-installer/intro-net.xml (+20/-0)
fr/boot-installer/intro-usb.xml (+14/-0)
fr/boot-installer/mips.xml (+61/-0)
fr/boot-installer/mipsel.xml (+9/-0)
fr/boot-installer/parameters.xml (+650/-0)
fr/boot-installer/powerpc.xml (+324/-0)
fr/boot-installer/s390.xml (+63/-0)
fr/boot-installer/sparc.xml (+46/-0)
fr/boot-installer/trouble.xml (+606/-0)
fr/boot-installer/x86.xml (+495/-0)
fr/boot-new/boot-new.xml (+209/-0)
fr/boot-new/mount-encrypted.xml (+129/-0)
fr/hardware/accessibility.xml (+34/-0)
fr/hardware/buying-hardware.xml (+87/-0)
fr/hardware/hardware-supported.xml (+452/-0)
fr/hardware/hardware.xml (+20/-0)
fr/hardware/installation-media.xml (+250/-0)
fr/hardware/memory-disk-requirements.xml (+33/-0)
fr/hardware/network-cards.xml (+189/-0)
fr/hardware/supported-peripherals.xml (+28/-0)
fr/hardware/supported/amd64.xml (+23/-0)
fr/hardware/supported/arm.xml (+459/-0)
fr/hardware/supported/hppa.xml (+17/-0)
fr/hardware/supported/i386.xml (+52/-0)
fr/hardware/supported/ia64.xml (+3/-0)
fr/hardware/supported/mips.xml (+56/-0)
fr/hardware/supported/mipsel.xml (+28/-0)
fr/hardware/supported/powerpc.xml (+482/-0)
fr/hardware/supported/s390.xml (+45/-0)
fr/hardware/supported/sparc.xml (+70/-0)
fr/howto/installation-howto.xml (+351/-0)
fr/install-methods/automatic-install.xml (+386/-0)
fr/install-methods/boot-drive-files.xml (+202/-0)
fr/install-methods/boot-usb-files.xml (+171/-0)
fr/install-methods/create-floppy.xml (+108/-0)
fr/install-methods/download/arm.xml (+83/-0)
fr/install-methods/download/powerpc.xml (+28/-0)
fr/install-methods/downloading-files.xml (+34/-0)
fr/install-methods/floppy/i386.xml (+35/-0)
fr/install-methods/floppy/powerpc.xml (+122/-0)
fr/install-methods/install-methods.xml (+15/-0)
fr/install-methods/install-tftp.xml (+342/-0)
fr/install-methods/official-cdrom.xml (+65/-0)
fr/install-methods/tftp/bootp.xml (+73/-0)
fr/install-methods/tftp/dhcp.xml (+94/-0)
fr/install-methods/tftp/rarp.xml (+32/-0)
fr/install-methods/usb-setup/powerpc.xml (+127/-0)
fr/install-methods/usb-setup/x86.xml (+128/-0)
fr/partitioning/device-names.xml (+109/-0)
fr/partitioning/partition-programs.xml (+138/-0)
fr/partitioning/partition/hppa.xml (+22/-0)
fr/partitioning/partition/ia64.xml (+120/-0)
fr/partitioning/partition/mips.xml (+16/-0)
fr/partitioning/partition/powerpc.xml (+57/-0)
fr/partitioning/partition/sparc.xml (+33/-0)
fr/partitioning/partition/x86.xml (+94/-0)
fr/partitioning/partitioning.xml (+13/-0)
fr/partitioning/schemes.xml (+78/-0)
fr/partitioning/sizing.xml (+52/-0)
fr/partitioning/tree.xml (+178/-0)
fr/post-install/further-reading.xml (+59/-0)
fr/post-install/kernel-baking.xml (+173/-0)
fr/post-install/mail-setup.xml (+255/-0)
fr/post-install/new-to-unix.xml (+29/-0)
fr/post-install/orientation.xml (+124/-0)
fr/post-install/post-install.xml (+15/-0)
fr/post-install/rescue.xml (+73/-0)
fr/post-install/shutdown.xml (+47/-0)
fr/preface.xml (+32/-0)
fr/preparing/backup.xml (+31/-0)
fr/preparing/bios-setup/arm.xml (+123/-0)
fr/preparing/bios-setup/i386.xml (+81/-0)
fr/preparing/bios-setup/powerpc.xml (+277/-0)
fr/preparing/bios-setup/s390.xml (+110/-0)
fr/preparing/bios-setup/sparc.xml (+103/-0)
fr/preparing/install-overview.xml (+185/-0)
fr/preparing/minimum-hardware-reqts.xml (+107/-0)
fr/preparing/needed-info.xml (+502/-0)
fr/preparing/non-debian-partitioning.xml (+182/-0)
fr/preparing/nondeb-part/powerpc.xml (+39/-0)
fr/preparing/nondeb-part/sparc.xml (+41/-0)
fr/preparing/nondeb-part/x86.xml (+120/-0)
fr/preparing/pre-install-bios-setup.xml (+160/-0)
fr/preparing/preparing.xml (+21/-0)
fr/using-d-i/components.xml (+192/-0)
fr/using-d-i/loading-firmware.xml (+141/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/anna.xml (+2/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/apt-setup.xml (+233/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/arm/flash-kernel-installer.xml (+36/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/autopartkit.xml (+2/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/base-installer.xml (+43/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/cdrom-checker.xml (+2/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/cdrom-detect.xml (+2/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/choose-mirror.xml (+24/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/clock-setup-finish.xml (+33/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/clock-setup.xml (+24/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/ddetect.xml (+2/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/finish-install.xml (+21/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/hppa/palo-installer.xml (+20/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/ia64/elilo-installer.xml (+135/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/iso-scan.xml (+47/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/kbd-chooser.xml (+25/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/localechooser.xml (+109/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/lowmem.xml (+62/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/mdcfg.xml (+300/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/mips/arcboot-installer.xml (+69/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/mipsel/colo-installer.xml (+2/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/netcfg.xml (+92/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/network-console.xml (+134/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/nobootloader.xml (+26/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/os-prober.xml (+26/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/partconf.xml (+2/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/partitioner.xml (+3/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/partman-crypto.xml (+283/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/partman-lvm.xml (+95/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/partman.xml (+430/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/pkgsel.xml (+129/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/powerpc/grub-installer.xml (+19/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/powerpc/quik-installer.xml (+16/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/powerpc/yaboot-installer.xml (+17/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/s390/dasd.xml (+2/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/s390/netdevice.xml (+2/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/s390/zipl-installer.xml (+16/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/save-logs.xml (+23/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/shell.xml (+67/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/sparc/silo-installer.xml (+25/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/tzsetup.xml (+65/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/user-setup.xml (+82/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/x86/grub-installer.xml (+25/-0)
fr/using-d-i/modules/x86/lilo-installer.xml (+67/-0)
fr/using-d-i/using-d-i.xml (+444/-0)
fr/welcome/about-copyright.xml (+91/-0)
fr/welcome/doc-organization.xml (+115/-0)
fr/welcome/getting-newest-doc.xml (+15/-0)
fr/welcome/getting-newest-inst.xml (+23/-0)
fr/welcome/welcome.xml (+26/-0)
fr/welcome/what-is-debian-hurd.xml (+37/-0)
fr/welcome/what-is-debian-kfreebsd.xml (+31/-0)
fr/welcome/what-is-debian-linux.xml (+82/-0)
fr/welcome/what-is-debian.xml (+275/-0)
fr/welcome/what-is-linux.xml (+96/-0)
fr/welcome/what-is-ubuntu.xml (+78/-0)
To merge this branch: bzr merge lp:~chris787/installation-guide/ubuntu-18.04-changed-supported-hw
Reviewer Review Type Date Requested Status
Ubuntu Core Development Team 2018-05-15 Pending
Review via email: mp+345596@code.launchpad.net
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Unmerged revisions

546. By christophe dumont on 2018-05-15

annexe A fr

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1=== added directory 'fr'
2=== added directory 'fr/administrivia'
3=== added file 'fr/administrivia/administrivia.xml'
4--- fr/administrivia/administrivia.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
5+++ fr/administrivia/administrivia.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
6@@ -0,0 +1,169 @@
7+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
8+<!-- $Id: administrivia.xml 64955 2010-10-12 19:31:35Z holger-guest $ -->
9+
10+<appendix id="administrivia">
11+ <title>Administrivia</title>
12+
13+
14+ <sect1 id="about">
15+ <title>About This Document</title>
16+
17+<para>
18+
19+This manual was created for Sarge's debian-installer, based on
20+the Woody installation manual for boot-floppies, which was based
21+on earlier Debian installation manuals, and on the Progeny
22+distribution manual which was released under GPL in 2003. It was
23+subsequently modified for use in Ubuntu.
24+
25+</para><para>
26+
27+This document is written in DocBook XML. Output formats are generated
28+by various programs using information from the
29+<classname>docbook-xml</classname> and
30+<classname>docbook-xsl</classname> packages.
31+
32+</para><para>
33+
34+In order to increase the maintainability of this document, we use
35+a number of XML features, such as entities and profiling attributes.
36+These play a role akin to variables and conditionals in programming
37+languages. The XML source to this document contains information for
38+each different architecture &mdash; profiling attributes are used to
39+isolate certain bits of text as architecture-specific.
40+
41+</para><para condition="about-langteam">
42+
43+Translators can use this paragraph to acknowledge the people responsible
44+for the translation of the manual.
45+Translation teams are advised to just mention the coordinator and maybe
46+major contributors and thank everybody else in a phrase like "all
47+translators and reviewers from the translation team for {your language}
48+at {your l10n mailinglist}".
49+
50+See build/lang-options/README on how to enable this paragraph.
51+Its condition is "about-langteam".
52+
53+</para>
54+ </sect1>
55+
56+ <sect1 id="contributing">
57+ <title>Contributing to This Document</title>
58+
59+<para>
60+
61+If you have problems or suggestions regarding this document, please
62+mail them to <email>ubuntu-users@lists.ubuntu.com</email>.
63+
64+</para><para condition="not-ubuntu"> <!-- FIXME better bug reporting -->
65+
66+If you have problems or suggestions regarding this document, you
67+should probably submit them as a bug report against the package
68+<classname>installation-guide</classname>. See the
69+<classname>reportbug</classname> package or read the online
70+documentation of the <ulink url="&url-bts;">Debian Bug
71+Tracking System</ulink>. It would be nice if you could check the
72+<ulink url="&url-bts;installation-guide">open bugs against
73+installation-guide</ulink> to see whether your problem has
74+already been reported. If so, you can supply additional corroboration
75+or helpful information to
76+<email><replaceable>XXXX</replaceable>@bugs.debian.org</email>,
77+where <replaceable>XXXX</replaceable> is the number for the
78+already-reported bug.
79+
80+</para><para condition="not-ubuntu">
81+
82+Better yet, get a copy of the DocBook source for this document, and
83+produce patches against it. The DocBook source can be found at the
84+<ulink url="&url-d-i-websvn;">debian-installer WebSVN</ulink>. If
85+you're not familiar with DocBook, don't worry:
86+there is a simple cheatsheet in the manuals directory that will get
87+you started. It's like html, but oriented towards the meaning of
88+the text rather than the presentation. Patches submitted to the
89+debian-boot mailing list (see below) are welcomed.
90+For instructions on how to check out the sources via SVN, see
91+<ulink url="&url-d-i-readme;">README</ulink>
92+from the source root directory.
93+
94+</para><para>
95+
96+Please do <emphasis>not</emphasis> contact the authors of this
97+document directly. There is also a discussion list for &d-i;, which
98+includes discussions of this manual. The mailing list is
99+<email>debian-boot@lists.debian.org</email>. Instructions for
100+subscribing to this list can be found at the <ulink
101+url="&url-debian-lists-subscribe;">Debian Mailing
102+List Subscription</ulink> page; or you can browse the <ulink
103+url="&url-debian-list-archives;">Debian Mailing List Archives</ulink>
104+online. Please do not contact debian-boot about issues specific to
105+Ubuntu.
106+
107+</para>
108+
109+ </sect1>
110+
111+ <sect1 id="contributors">
112+ <title>Major Contributions</title>
113+
114+<para>
115+
116+This document was originally written by Bruce Perens, Sven Rudolph, Igor
117+Grobman, James Treacy, and Adam Di Carlo. Sebastian Ley wrote the
118+Installation Howto.
119+
120+</para><para>
121+
122+Miroslav Kuře has documented a lot of the new functionality in Sarge's
123+debian-installer. Frans Pop was the main editor and release manager during
124+the Etch, Lenny and Squeeze releases.
125+
126+</para><para>
127+
128+Many, many Debian users and developers contributed to this document.
129+Particular note must be made of Michael Schmitz (m68k support), Frank
130+Neumann (original author of the <ulink
131+url="&url-m68k-old-amiga-install;">Amiga install manual</ulink>),
132+Arto Astala, Eric Delaunay/Ben Collins (SPARC information), Tapio
133+Lehtonen, and Stéphane Bortzmeyer for numerous edits and text.
134+We have to thank Pascal Le Bail for useful information about booting
135+from USB memory sticks. Colin Watson and others made the modifications
136+for Ubuntu.
137+
138+</para><para>
139+
140+Extremely helpful text and information was found in Jim Mintha's HOWTO
141+for network booting (no URL available), the <ulink
142+url="&url-debian-faq;">Debian FAQ</ulink>, the <ulink
143+url="&url-m68k-faq;">Linux/m68k FAQ</ulink>, the <ulink
144+url="&url-sparc-linux-faq;">Linux for SPARC Processors
145+FAQ</ulink>, the <ulink
146+url="&url-alpha-faq;">Linux/Alpha
147+FAQ</ulink>, amongst others. The maintainers of these freely
148+available and rich sources of information must be recognized.
149+
150+</para><para>
151+
152+The section on chrooted installations in this manual
153+(<xref linkend="linux-upgrade"/>) was derived in part from
154+documents copyright Karsten M. Self.
155+
156+</para><para arch="x86">
157+
158+The section on installations over plip in this manual
159+(<xref linkend="plip"/>) was based on the
160+<ulink url="&url-plip-install-howto;">PLIP-Install-HOWTO</ulink>
161+by Gilles Lamiral.
162+
163+</para>
164+ </sect1>
165+
166+ <sect1 id="trademarks">
167+ <title>Trademark Acknowledgement</title>
168+<para>
169+
170+All trademarks are property of their respective trademark owners.
171+
172+</para>
173+ </sect1>
174+</appendix>
175+
176
177=== added directory 'fr/appendix'
178=== added file 'fr/appendix/chroot-install.xml'
179--- fr/appendix/chroot-install.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
180+++ fr/appendix/chroot-install.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
181@@ -0,0 +1,765 @@
182+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
183+<!-- $Id: chroot-install.xml 69755 2015-04-14 01:12:05Z 93sam $ -->
184+
185+ <sect1 id="linux-upgrade">
186+ <title>Installing &debian-gnu; from a Unix/Linux System</title>
187+
188+<para>
189+
190+This section explains how to install &debian-gnu; from an existing
191+Unix or Linux system, without using the menu-driven installer as
192+explained in the rest of the manual. This <quote>cross-install</quote>
193+HOWTO has been requested by users switching to &debian-gnu; from
194+Debian, Red Hat, Mandriva, and SUSE. In this section some familiarity with
195+entering *nix commands and navigating the file system is assumed. In
196+this section, <prompt>$</prompt> symbolizes a command to be entered in
197+the user's current system, while <prompt>#</prompt> refers to a
198+command entered in the &debian; chroot.
199+
200+</para><para>
201+
202+Once you've got the new &debian; system configured to your preference,
203+you can migrate your existing user data (if any) to it, and keep on
204+rolling. This is therefore a <quote>zero downtime</quote> &debian-gnu;
205+install. It's also a clever way for dealing with hardware that
206+otherwise doesn't play friendly with various boot or installation
207+media.
208+
209+</para>
210+
211+<note><para>
212+
213+As this is a mostly manual procedure, you should bear in mind that you
214+will need to do a lot of basic configuration of the system yourself,
215+which will also require more knowledge of &debian; and of &arch-kernel; in general
216+than performing a regular installation. You cannot expect this procedure
217+to result in a system that is identical to a system from a regular
218+installation. You should also keep in mind that this procedure only
219+gives the basic steps to set up a system. Additional installation and/or
220+configuration steps may be needed. In general, this method of installation is <emphasis>not</emphasis> recommended for casual or first time users.
221+
222+</para></note>
223+
224+ <sect2>
225+ <title>Getting Started</title>
226+<para>
227+
228+With your current *nix partitioning tools, repartition the hard
229+drive as needed, creating at least one filesystem plus swap. You
230+need around &base-system-size;MB of space available for a console only
231+install<phrase condition="supports-desktop">, or about
232+&task-desktop-lxde-inst;MB if you plan to install X (more if you intend to
233+install desktop environments such as GNOME or KDE)</phrase>.
234+
235+</para><para>
236+
237+Next, create file systems on the partitions. For example, to create an
238+ext3 file system on partition <filename>/dev/sda6</filename> (that's
239+our example root partition):
240+
241+<informalexample><screen>
242+# mke2fs -j /dev/<replaceable>sda6</replaceable>
243+</screen></informalexample>
244+
245+To create an ext2 file system instead, omit <userinput>-j</userinput>.
246+
247+</para><para>
248+
249+Initialize and activate swap (substitute the partition number for
250+your intended &debian; swap partition):
251+
252+<informalexample><screen>
253+# mkswap /dev/<replaceable>sda5</replaceable>
254+# sync
255+# swapon /dev/<replaceable>sda5</replaceable>
256+</screen></informalexample>
257+
258+Mount one partition as <filename>/mnt/ubuntu</filename> (the
259+installation point, to be the root (<filename>/</filename>) filesystem
260+on your new system). The mount point name is strictly arbitrary, it is
261+referenced later below.
262+
263+<informalexample><screen>
264+# mkdir /mnt/ubuntu
265+# mount /dev/<replaceable>sda6</replaceable> /mnt/ubuntu
266+</screen></informalexample>
267+
268+</para>
269+<note><para>
270+
271+If you want to have parts of the filesystem (e.g. /usr) mounted on
272+separate partitions, you will need to create and mount these directories
273+manually before proceding with the next stage.
274+
275+</para></note>
276+ </sect2>
277+
278+ <sect2>
279+ <title>Install <command>debootstrap</command></title>
280+<para>
281+
282+The utility used by the &debian; installer, and recognized as the
283+official way to install an &ubuntu; base system, is
284+<command>debootstrap</command>. It uses <command>wget</command> and
285+<command>ar</command>, but otherwise depends only on
286+<classname>/bin/sh</classname> and basic Unix/Linux tools<footnote>
287+
288+<para>
289+
290+These include the GNU core utilities and commands like <command>sed</command>, <command>grep</command>, <command>tar</command> and <command>gzip</command>.
291+
292+</para>
293+
294+</footnote>. Install <command>wget</command> and
295+<command>ar</command> if they aren't already on your current system,
296+then download and install <command>debootstrap</command>.
297+
298+</para>
299+
300+<para>
301+
302+ If you have an RPM (Red Hat Package Manager) based system, you can use alien, which
303+ is available in the Debian repositories, to convert the .deb file to a useable .rpm
304+ file.
305+
306+</para>
307+
308+<para>
309+
310+Or, you can use the following procedure to install it
311+manually. Make a work folder for extracting the .deb into:
312+
313+<informalexample><screen>
314+# mkdir work
315+# cd work
316+</screen></informalexample>
317+
318+The <command>debootstrap</command> binary is located in the &debian;
319+archive (be sure to select the proper file for your
320+architecture). Download the <command>debootstrap</command> .deb from
321+the <ulink url="&url-archive;pool/main/d/debootstrap/">
322+pool</ulink>, copy the package to the work folder, and extract the
323+files from it. You will need to have root privileges to install
324+the files.
325+
326+<informalexample><screen>
327+# ar -x debootstrap_0.X.X_all.deb
328+# cd /
329+# zcat /full-path-to-work/work/data.tar.gz | tar xv
330+</screen></informalexample>
331+
332+</para>
333+ </sect2>
334+
335+ <sect2>
336+ <title>Run <command>debootstrap</command></title>
337+<para>
338+
339+<command>debootstrap</command> can download the needed files directly
340+from the archive when you run it. You can substitute any &debian;
341+archive mirror for <userinput>&archive-mirror;&archive-subdir;</userinput> in
342+the command example below, preferably a mirror close to you
343+network-wise. Mirrors are listed at
344+<ulink url="&url-debian-mirrors;"></ulink>.
345+
346+</para><para>
347+
348+If you have an &ubuntu; &releasename; CD mounted at
349+<filename>/cdrom</filename>, you could substitute a file URL instead
350+of the http URL: <userinput>file:/cdrom/ubuntu/</userinput>
351+
352+</para><para>
353+
354+Substitute one of the following for <replaceable>ARCH</replaceable>
355+in the <command>debootstrap</command> command:
356+
357+<userinput>amd64</userinput>,
358+<userinput>arm64</userinput>,
359+<userinput>armhf</userinput>,
360+<userinput>i386</userinput>,
361+<userinput>powerpc</userinput>,
362+<userinput>ppc64el</userinput>, or
363+<userinput>s390x</userinput>.
364+
365+<informalexample><screen>
366+# /usr/sbin/debootstrap --arch ARCH &releasename; /mnt/ubuntu
367+</screen></informalexample>
368+
369+</para>
370+ </sect2>
371+
372+ <sect2>
373+ <title>Configure The Base System</title>
374+<para>
375+
376+Now you've got a real &debian; system, though rather lean, on disk.
377+<command>chroot</command> into it:
378+
379+<informalexample><screen>
380+# LANG=C.UTF-8 chroot /mnt/ubuntu /bin/bash
381+</screen></informalexample>
382+
383+After chrooting you may need to set the terminal definition to be
384+compatible with the &debian; base system, for example:
385+
386+<informalexample><screen>
387+# export TERM=<replaceable>xterm-color</replaceable>
388+</screen></informalexample>
389+
390+Depending on the value of TERM, you may have to install the
391+<classname>ncurses-term</classname> package to get support for it.
392+
393+</para>
394+
395+ <sect3>
396+ <title>Create device files</title>
397+<para>
398+
399+At this point <filename>/dev/</filename> only contains very basic device
400+files. For the next steps of the installation additional device files may
401+be needed. There are different ways to go about this and which method you
402+should use depends on the host system you are using for the installation,
403+on whether you intend to use a modular kernel or not, and on whether you
404+intend to use dynamic (e.g. using <classname>udev</classname>) or static
405+device files for the new system.
406+
407+</para><para>
408+
409+A few of the available options are:
410+
411+<itemizedlist>
412+<listitem><para>
413+
414+install the makedev package, and create a default set of static device files
415+using (after chrooting)
416+<informalexample><screen>
417+# apt-get install makedev
418+# mount none /proc -t proc
419+# cd /dev
420+# MAKEDEV generic
421+</screen></informalexample>
422+
423+</para></listitem>
424+<listitem><para>
425+
426+manually create only specific device files using <command>MAKEDEV</command>
427+
428+</para></listitem>
429+<listitem><para>
430+
431+bind mount /dev from your host system on top of /dev in the target system;
432+note that the postinst scripts of some packages may try to create device
433+files, so this option should only be used with care
434+
435+</para></listitem>
436+</itemizedlist>
437+
438+</para>
439+ </sect3>
440+
441+ <sect3>
442+ <title>Mount Partitions</title>
443+<para>
444+
445+You need to create <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>.
446+
447+<informalexample><screen>
448+# editor /etc/fstab
449+</screen></informalexample>
450+
451+Here is a sample you can modify to suit:
452+
453+<informalexample><screen>
454+# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
455+#
456+# file system mount point type options dump pass
457+/dev/XXX / ext3 defaults 0 1
458+/dev/XXX /boot ext3 ro,nosuid,nodev 0 2
459+
460+/dev/XXX none swap sw 0 0
461+proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
462+sys /sys sysfs defaults 0 0
463+
464+/dev/fd0 /media/floppy auto noauto,rw,sync,user,exec 0 0
465+/dev/cdrom /media/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro,user,exec 0 0
466+
467+/dev/XXX /tmp ext3 rw,nosuid,nodev 0 2
468+/dev/XXX /var ext3 rw,nosuid,nodev 0 2
469+/dev/XXX /usr ext3 rw,nodev 0 2
470+/dev/XXX /home ext3 rw,nosuid,nodev 0 2
471+</screen></informalexample>
472+
473+Use <userinput>mount -a</userinput> to mount all the file systems you
474+have specified in your <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>, or, to mount
475+file systems individually, use:
476+
477+<informalexample><screen>
478+# mount /path # e.g.: mount /usr
479+</screen></informalexample>
480+
481+Current &debian; systems have mountpoints for removable media under
482+<filename>/media</filename>, but keep compatibility symlinks in
483+<filename>/</filename>. Create these as as needed, for example:
484+
485+<informalexample><screen>
486+# cd /media
487+# mkdir cdrom0
488+# ln -s cdrom0 cdrom
489+# cd /
490+# ln -s media/cdrom
491+</screen></informalexample>
492+
493+You can mount the proc and sysfs file systems multiple times and to arbitrary
494+locations, though <filename>/proc</filename> and <filename>/sys</filename> respectively are customary. If you didn't use
495+<userinput>mount -a</userinput>, be sure to mount proc and sysfs before continuing:
496+
497+<informalexample><screen>
498+# mount -t proc proc /proc
499+# mount -t sysfs sysfs /sys
500+</screen></informalexample>
501+
502+</para><para>
503+
504+The command <userinput>ls /proc</userinput> should now show a non-empty
505+directory. Should this fail, you may be able to mount proc from outside
506+the chroot:
507+
508+<informalexample><screen>
509+# mount -t proc proc /mnt/ubuntu/proc
510+</screen></informalexample>
511+
512+</para>
513+ </sect3>
514+
515+ <sect3>
516+ <title>Setting Timezone</title>
517+<para>
518+
519+Setting the third line of the file <filename>/etc/adjtime</filename> to
520+<quote>UTC</quote> or <quote>LOCAL</quote> determines
521+whether the system will interpret the hardware clock as being set to UTC
522+respective local time. The following command allows you to set that.
523+
524+<informalexample><screen>
525+# editor /etc/adjtime
526+</screen></informalexample>
527+
528+Here is a sample:
529+<informalexample><screen>
530+0.0 0 0.0
531+0
532+UTC
533+</screen></informalexample>
534+
535+The following command allows you to choose your timezone.
536+
537+<informalexample><screen>
538+# dpkg-reconfigure tzdata
539+</screen></informalexample>
540+
541+</para>
542+ </sect3>
543+
544+ <sect3>
545+ <title>Configure Networking</title>
546+<para>
547+
548+To configure networking, edit
549+<filename>/etc/network/interfaces</filename>,
550+<filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>,
551+<filename>/etc/hostname</filename> and
552+<filename>/etc/hosts</filename>.
553+
554+<informalexample><screen>
555+# editor /etc/network/interfaces
556+</screen></informalexample>
557+
558+Here are some simple examples from
559+<filename>/usr/share/doc/ifupdown/examples</filename>:
560+
561+<informalexample><screen>
562+######################################################################
563+# /etc/network/interfaces -- configuration file for ifup(8), ifdown(8)
564+# See the interfaces(5) manpage for information on what options are
565+# available.
566+######################################################################
567+
568+# We always want the loopback interface.
569+#
570+auto lo
571+iface lo inet loopback
572+
573+# To use dhcp:
574+#
575+# auto eth0
576+# iface eth0 inet dhcp
577+
578+# An example static IP setup: (broadcast and gateway are optional)
579+#
580+# auto eth0
581+# iface eth0 inet static
582+# address 192.168.0.42
583+# network 192.168.0.0
584+# netmask 255.255.255.0
585+# broadcast 192.168.0.255
586+# gateway 192.168.0.1
587+</screen></informalexample>
588+
589+Enter your nameserver(s) and search directives in
590+<filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>:
591+
592+<informalexample><screen>
593+# editor /etc/resolv.conf
594+</screen></informalexample>
595+
596+A simple example <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>:
597+
598+<informalexample><screen>
599+search hqdom.local
600+nameserver 10.1.1.36
601+nameserver 192.168.9.100
602+</screen></informalexample>
603+
604+Enter your system's host name (2 to 63 characters):
605+
606+<informalexample><screen>
607+# echo UbuntuHostName &gt; /etc/hostname
608+</screen></informalexample>
609+
610+And a basic <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> with IPv6 support:
611+
612+<informalexample><screen>
613+127.0.0.1 localhost
614+127.0.1.1 UbuntuHostName
615+
616+# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
617+::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
618+fe00::0 ip6-localnet
619+ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
620+ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
621+ff02::2 ip6-allrouters
622+ff02::3 ip6-allhosts
623+</screen></informalexample>
624+
625+If you have multiple network cards, you should arrange the names of
626+driver modules in the <filename>/etc/modules</filename> file into the
627+desired order. Then during boot, each card will be associated with the
628+interface name (eth0, eth1, etc.) that you expect.
629+
630+</para>
631+ </sect3>
632+
633+ <sect3>
634+ <title>Configure Apt</title>
635+<para>
636+
637+Debootstrap will have created a very basic
638+<filename>/etc/apt/sources.list</filename> that will allow installing
639+additional packages. However, it is suggested that you add some additional sources,
640+for example for source packages and security updates:
641+
642+<informalexample><screen>
643+deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu &releasename; main
644+
645+deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu &releasename;-security main
646+deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu &releasename;-security main
647+</screen></informalexample>
648+
649+Make sure to run <userinput>aptitude update</userinput> after you have
650+made changes to the sources list.
651+
652+</para>
653+ </sect3>
654+
655+ <sect3>
656+ <title>Configure Locales and Keyboard</title>
657+<para>
658+
659+To configure your locale settings to use a language other than
660+English, install the appropriate language packs and configure them.
661+Currently the use of UTF-8 locales is recommended.
662+
663+<informalexample><screen>
664+# aptitude install language-pack-de language-pack-gnome-de
665+</screen></informalexample>
666+
667+To configure your keyboard (if needed):
668+
669+<informalexample><screen>
670+# aptitude install console-setup
671+# dpkg-reconfigure keyboard-configuration
672+</screen></informalexample>
673+
674+</para><para>
675+
676+Note that the keyboard cannot be set while in the chroot, but will be
677+configured for the next reboot.
678+
679+</para>
680+ </sect3>
681+ </sect2>
682+
683+ <sect2>
684+ <title>Install a Kernel</title>
685+<para>
686+
687+If you intend to boot this system, you probably want a &arch-kernel; kernel
688+and a boot loader. Identify available pre-packaged kernels with:
689+
690+<informalexample><screen>
691+# apt-cache search &kernelpackage;
692+</screen></informalexample>
693+
694+</para><para>
695+
696+Then install the kernel package of your choice using its package name.
697+
698+<informalexample><screen>
699+# aptitude install &kernelpackage;-<replaceable>arch-etc</replaceable>
700+</screen></informalexample>
701+
702+</para>
703+ </sect2>
704+
705+ <sect2>
706+<title>Set up the Boot Loader</title>
707+<para>
708+
709+To make your &debian-gnu; system bootable, set up your boot loader to load
710+the installed kernel with your new root partition. Note that
711+<command>debootstrap</command> does not install a boot loader, though you
712+can use <command>aptitude</command> inside your &debian; chroot to do so.
713+
714+</para><para arch="any-x86">
715+
716+Check <userinput>info grub</userinput> <phrase arch="x86">or <userinput>man
717+lilo.conf</userinput></phrase> for instructions on setting up the
718+bootloader.
719+For an initial install of grub, you should normally run
720+<userinput>grub-install</userinput> to install a grub image on your hard
721+disk, and <userinput>update-grub</userinput> to generate a
722+<filename>menu.lst</filename> configuration file.
723+If you are keeping the system you used to install &debian;, just
724+add an entry for the &debian; install to your existing grub2
725+<filename>grub.cfg</filename><phrase arch="x86"> or <filename>lilo.conf</filename>. For
726+<filename>lilo.conf</filename>, you could also copy it to the new system and
727+edit it there. After you are done editing, call <command>lilo</command>
728+(remember it will use
729+<filename>lilo.conf</filename> relative to the system you call it from)</phrase>.
730+
731+</para><para arch="any-x86">
732+
733+Installing and setting up <classname>grub2</classname> is as easy as:
734+
735+<informalexample><screen>
736+# aptitude install grub-pc
737+# grub-install /dev/<replaceable>sda</replaceable>
738+# update-grub
739+</screen></informalexample>
740+
741+The second command will install <command>grub2</command> (in this case in
742+the MBR of <literal>sda</literal>). The last command will create a sane
743+and working <filename>/boot/grub/grub.cfg</filename>.
744+
745+</para><para>
746+
747+Note that this assumes that a <filename>/dev/sda</filename> device file has
748+been created. There are alternative methods to install <command>grub2</command>,
749+but those are outside the scope of this appendix.
750+
751+</para><para arch="x86">
752+
753+Here is a basic <filename>/etc/lilo.conf</filename> as an example:
754+
755+<informalexample><screen>
756+boot=/dev/<replaceable>sda6</replaceable>
757+root=/dev/<replaceable>sda6</replaceable>
758+install=menu
759+delay=20
760+lba32
761+image=/vmlinuz
762+initrd=/initrd.img
763+label=Ubuntu
764+</screen></informalexample>
765+
766+</para><para arch="powerpc">
767+
768+Check <userinput>man yaboot.conf</userinput> for instructions on
769+setting up the bootloader. If you are keeping the system you used to
770+install &debian;, just add an entry for the &debian; install to your
771+existing <filename>yaboot.conf</filename>. You could also copy it to
772+the new system and
773+edit it there. After you are done editing, call ybin (remember it will
774+use <filename>yaboot.conf</filename> relative to the system you call it from).
775+
776+</para><para arch="powerpc">
777+
778+Here is a basic <filename>/etc/yaboot.conf</filename> as an example:
779+
780+<informalexample><screen>
781+boot=/dev/sda2
782+device=hd:
783+partition=6
784+root=/dev/sda6
785+magicboot=/usr/lib/yaboot/ofboot
786+timeout=50
787+image=/vmlinux
788+label=Ubuntu
789+</screen></informalexample>
790+
791+On some machines, you may need to use <userinput>ide0:</userinput>
792+instead of <userinput>hd:</userinput>.
793+
794+</para>
795+ </sect2>
796+
797+ <sect2>
798+<title>Remote access: Installing SSH and setting up access</title>
799+<para>
800+
801+In case you can login to the system via console, you can skip this section. If
802+the system should be accessible via the network later on, you need to install
803+SSH and set up access.
804+
805+<informalexample><screen>
806+# aptitude install ssh
807+</screen></informalexample>
808+
809+
810+Root login with password is disabled by default, so setting up access can be
811+done by setting a password and re-enable root login with password:
812+
813+<informalexample><screen>
814+# passwd
815+# editor /etc/ssh/sshd_config
816+</screen></informalexample>
817+
818+This is the option to be enabled:
819+
820+<informalexample><screen>
821+PermitRootLogin yes
822+</screen></informalexample>
823+
824+Access can also be set up by adding an ssh key to the root account:
825+
826+<informalexample><screen>
827+# mkdir /root/.ssh
828+# cat &lt;&lt; EOF &gt; /root/.ssh/authorized_keys
829+ssh-rsa ....
830+EOF
831+</screen></informalexample>
832+
833+Lastly, access can be set up by adding a non-root user and setting a password:
834+
835+<informalexample><screen>
836+# adduser joe
837+# passwd joe
838+</screen></informalexample>
839+</para>
840+ </sect2>
841+
842+ <sect2>
843+<title>Finishing touches</title>
844+<para>
845+
846+As mentioned earlier, the installed system will be very basic. If you
847+would like to make the system a bit more mature, there is an easy method
848+to install all packages with <quote>standard</quote> priority:
849+
850+<informalexample><screen>
851+# tasksel install standard
852+</screen></informalexample>
853+
854+Of course, you can also just use <command>aptitude</command> to install
855+packages individually.
856+
857+</para><para>
858+
859+After the installation there will be a lot of downloaded packages in
860+<filename>/var/cache/apt/archives/</filename>. You can free up some
861+diskspace by running:
862+
863+<informalexample><screen>
864+# aptitude clean
865+</screen></informalexample>
866+
867+</para>
868+ </sect2>
869+
870+ <sect2>
871+ <title>Create a User</title>
872+<para>
873+
874+Use the <command>adduser</command> command to create a new user account:
875+
876+<informalexample><screen>
877+# adduser myusername
878+</screen></informalexample>
879+
880+You will be prompted for a full name and a password.
881+
882+</para>
883+
884+<para>
885+
886+The normal Ubuntu configuration is to allow this new user to administer the
887+system using <command>sudo</command>. To set this up, first create an
888+<classname>admin</classname> group and add your new user to it:
889+
890+<informalexample><screen>
891+# addgroup --system admin
892+# adduser myusername admin
893+</screen></informalexample>
894+
895+You can now use the <command>visudo</command> command to add these lines to
896+the end of <filename>/etc/sudoers</filename>, so that any user in the
897+<classname>admin</classname> group can administer the system:
898+
899+<informalexample><screen>
900+# Members of the admin group may gain root privileges
901+%admin ALL=(ALL) ALL
902+</screen></informalexample>
903+
904+</para>
905+
906+<para>
907+
908+If you don't want to follow this configuration, then remember to set a root
909+password:
910+
911+<informalexample><screen>
912+# passwd root
913+</screen></informalexample>
914+
915+</para>
916+ </sect2>
917+
918+ <sect2 condition="supports-desktop">
919+ <title>Install the Ubuntu Desktop</title>
920+<para>
921+
922+At this point, you probably want to reboot into your new Ubuntu system to
923+make sure it all works. Once you've done that, log in as the user you just
924+created, and run:
925+
926+<informalexample><screen>
927+
928+ $ sudo tasksel install standard
929+ $ sudo tasksel install ubuntu-desktop
930+
931+</screen></informalexample>
932+
933+You will need to enter your password to authorise <command>sudo</command> to
934+run as root.
935+
936+</para><para>
937+
938+<command>tasksel</command> will now get on with installing the packages
939+that make up the Ubuntu desktop, which will take a while. When it's
940+finished, you should be presented with a graphical login prompt. The
941+installation is now complete, so go ahead and log in.
942+
943+</para>
944+
945+ </sect2>
946+ </sect1>
947
948=== added file 'fr/appendix/files.xml'
949--- fr/appendix/files.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
950+++ fr/appendix/files.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
951@@ -0,0 +1,323 @@
952+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
953+<!-- $Id: files.xml 69755 2015-04-14 01:12:05Z 93sam $ -->
954+
955+
956+ <sect1 arch="linux-any" id="linuxdevices"><title>Linux Devices</title>
957+<para>
958+
959+In Linux various special files can be found under the directory
960+<filename>/dev</filename>. These files are called device files and
961+behave unlike ordinary files. The most common types of device files
962+are for block devices and character devices. These files are an
963+interface to the actual driver (part of the Linux kernel) which in
964+turn accesses the hardware. Another, less common, type of device file
965+is the named <firstterm>pipe</firstterm>.
966+The most important device files are listed in the tables below.
967+
968+</para><para>
969+
970+<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
971+<row>
972+ <entry><filename>fd0</filename></entry>
973+ <entry>First Floppy Drive</entry>
974+</row><row>
975+ <entry><filename>fd1</filename></entry>
976+ <entry>Second Floppy Drive</entry>
977+</row>
978+</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
979+
980+<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
981+<row>
982+ <entry><filename>sda</filename></entry>
983+ <entry>First hard disk</entry>
984+</row><row>
985+ <entry><filename>sdb</filename></entry>
986+ <entry>Second hard disk</entry>
987+</row><row>
988+ <entry><filename>sda1</filename></entry>
989+ <entry>First partition of the first hard disk</entry>
990+</row><row>
991+ <entry><filename>sdb7</filename></entry>
992+ <entry>Seventh partition of the second hard disk</entry>
993+</row>
994+</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
995+
996+<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
997+<row>
998+ <entry><filename>sr0</filename></entry>
999+ <entry>First CD-ROM</entry>
1000+</row><row>
1001+ <entry><filename>sr1</filename></entry>
1002+ <entry>Second CD-ROM</entry>
1003+</row>
1004+</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1005+
1006+<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
1007+<row>
1008+ <entry><filename>ttyS0</filename></entry>
1009+ <entry>Serial port 0, COM1 under MS-DOS</entry>
1010+</row><row>
1011+ <entry><filename>ttyS1</filename></entry>
1012+ <entry>Serial port 1, COM2 under MS-DOS</entry>
1013+</row><row>
1014+ <entry><filename>psaux</filename></entry>
1015+ <entry>PS/2 mouse device</entry>
1016+</row><row>
1017+ <entry><filename>gpmdata</filename></entry>
1018+ <entry>Pseudo device, repeater data from GPM (mouse) daemon</entry>
1019+</row>
1020+</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1021+
1022+<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
1023+<row>
1024+ <entry><filename>cdrom</filename></entry>
1025+ <entry>Symbolic link to the CD-ROM drive</entry>
1026+</row><row>
1027+ <entry><filename>mouse</filename></entry>
1028+ <entry>Symbolic link to the mouse device file</entry>
1029+</row>
1030+</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1031+
1032+<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
1033+<row>
1034+ <entry><filename>null</filename></entry>
1035+ <entry>Anything written to this device will disappear</entry>
1036+</row><row>
1037+ <entry><filename>zero</filename></entry>
1038+ <entry>One can endlessly read zeros out of this device</entry>
1039+</row>
1040+</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1041+
1042+</para>
1043+
1044+ <sect2 arch="not-s390" id="device-mouse">
1045+ <title>Setting Up Your Mouse</title>
1046+<para>
1047+
1048+The mouse can be used in both the Linux console (with gpm) and the X
1049+window environment. Normally, this is a simple matter of installing
1050+<filename>gpm</filename> and the X server itself. Both should be
1051+configured to use <filename>/dev/input/mice</filename> as the mouse
1052+device. The correct mouse protocol is named <userinput>exps2</userinput>
1053+in gpm, and <userinput>ExplorerPS/2</userinput> in X. The respective
1054+configuration files are <filename>/etc/gpm.conf</filename> and
1055+<filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>.
1056+
1057+</para><para>
1058+
1059+Certain kernel modules must be loaded in order for your mouse to work.
1060+In most cases the correct modules are autodetected, but not always for
1061+old-style serial and bus mice<footnote>
1062+
1063+<para>
1064+Serial mice usually have a 9-hole D-shaped connector; bus mice have an
1065+8-pin round connector, not to be confused with the 6-pin round connector
1066+of a PS/2 mouse or the 4-pin round connector of an ADB mouse.
1067+</para>
1068+
1069+</footnote>, which are quite rare except on very old computers. Summary
1070+of Linux kernel modules needed for different mouse types:
1071+
1072+<informaltable><tgroup cols="2"><thead>
1073+<row>
1074+ <entry>Module</entry>
1075+ <entry>Description</entry>
1076+</row>
1077+</thead><tbody>
1078+<row>
1079+ <entry>psmouse</entry>
1080+ <entry>PS/2 mice (should be autodetected)</entry>
1081+</row>
1082+<row>
1083+ <entry>usbhid</entry>
1084+ <entry>USB mice (should be autodetected)</entry>
1085+</row>
1086+<row>
1087+ <entry>sermouse</entry>
1088+ <entry>Most serial mice</entry>
1089+</row>
1090+<row>
1091+ <entry>logibm</entry>
1092+ <entry>Bus mouse connected to Logitech adapter card</entry>
1093+</row>
1094+<row>
1095+ <entry>inport</entry>
1096+ <entry>Bus mouse connected to ATI or Microsoft InPort card</entry>
1097+</row>
1098+</tbody></tgroup></informaltable>
1099+
1100+To load a mouse driver module, you can use the <command>modconf</command>
1101+command (from the package with the same name) and look in the category
1102+<userinput>kernel/drivers/input/mouse</userinput>.
1103+
1104+</para><para arch="powerpc">
1105+<!-- FJP 20070122: Unsure if this is still valid -->
1106+
1107+Modern kernels give you the capability to emulate a three-button mouse
1108+when your mouse only has one button. Just add the following lines to
1109+<filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename> file.
1110+
1111+<informalexample><screen>
1112+# 3-button mouse emulation
1113+# turn on emulation
1114+/dev/mac_hid/mouse_button_emulation = 1
1115+# Send middle mouse button signal with the F11 key
1116+/dev/mac_hid/mouse_button2_keycode = 87
1117+# Send right mouse button signal with the F12 key
1118+/dev/mac_hid/mouse_button3_keycode = 88
1119+# For different keys, use showkey to tell you what the code is.
1120+</screen></informalexample>
1121+
1122+</para>
1123+ </sect2>
1124+ </sect1>
1125+
1126+ <sect1 id="tasksel-size-list">
1127+ <title>Disk Space Needed for Tasks</title>
1128+<para>
1129+
1130+A standard installation for the amd64 architecture, including all standard
1131+packages and using the default kernel, takes up &std-system-size;MB of disk space.
1132+A minimal base installation, without the <quote>Standard system</quote>
1133+task selected, will take &base-system-size;MB.
1134+
1135+</para>
1136+<important><para>
1137+
1138+In both cases this is the actual disk space used <emphasis>after</emphasis>
1139+the installation is finished and any temporary files deleted. It also does
1140+not take into account overhead used by the file system, for example for
1141+journal files. This means that significantly more disk space is needed both
1142+<emphasis>during</emphasis> the installation and for normal system use.
1143+
1144+</para></important>
1145+<para>
1146+
1147+The following table lists sizes reported by aptitude for the tasks listed
1148+in tasksel. Note that some tasks have overlapping constituents, so the
1149+total installed size for two tasks together may be less than the total
1150+obtained by adding up the numbers.
1151+
1152+</para><para condition="supports-desktop">
1153+
1154+By default the installer will install the GNOME desktop environment, but
1155+alternative desktop environments can be selected either by using one
1156+of the special CD images, or by specifying the desired desktop environment
1157+when the installer is booted (see <xref linkend="pkgsel"/>).
1158+
1159+</para><para>
1160+
1161+Note that you will need to add the sizes listed in the table to the size
1162+of the standard installation when determining the size of partitions.
1163+Most of the size listed as <quote>Installed size</quote> will end up in
1164+<filename>/usr</filename> and in <filename>/lib</filename>;
1165+the size listed as <quote>Download size</quote>
1166+is (temporarily) required in <filename>/var</filename>.
1167+
1168+</para><para>
1169+
1170+<informaltable><tgroup cols="4">
1171+<thead>
1172+<row>
1173+ <entry>Task</entry>
1174+ <entry>Installed size (MB)</entry>
1175+ <entry>Download size (MB)</entry>
1176+ <entry>Space needed to install (MB)</entry>
1177+</row>
1178+</thead>
1179+
1180+<tbody>
1181+<row condition="supports-desktop">
1182+ <entry>Desktop environment</entry>
1183+ <entry>&nbsp;</entry>
1184+ <entry>&nbsp;</entry>
1185+ <entry>&nbsp;</entry>
1186+</row>
1187+<row condition="supports-desktop">
1188+ <entry>&nbsp;&nbsp;&bull;&nbsp;GNOME (default)</entry>
1189+ <entry>&task-desktop-gnome-inst;</entry>
1190+ <entry>&task-desktop-gnome-dl;</entry>
1191+ <entry>&task-desktop-gnome-tot;</entry>
1192+</row>
1193+<row condition="supports-desktop">
1194+ <entry>&nbsp;&nbsp;&bull;&nbsp;KDE</entry>
1195+ <entry>&task-desktop-kde-inst;</entry>
1196+ <entry>&task-desktop-kde-dl;</entry>
1197+ <entry>&task-desktop-kde-tot;</entry>
1198+</row>
1199+<row condition="supports-desktop">
1200+ <entry>&nbsp;&nbsp;&bull;&nbsp;Xfce</entry>
1201+ <entry>&task-desktop-xfce-inst;</entry>
1202+ <entry>&task-desktop-xfce-dl;</entry>
1203+ <entry>&task-desktop-xfce-tot;</entry>
1204+</row>
1205+<row condition="supports-desktop">
1206+ <entry>&nbsp;&nbsp;&bull;&nbsp;LXDE</entry>
1207+ <entry>&task-desktop-lxde-inst;</entry>
1208+ <entry>&task-desktop-lxde-dl;</entry>
1209+ <entry>&task-desktop-lxde-tot;</entry>
1210+</row>
1211+<row condition="not-ubuntu">
1212+ <entry>&nbsp;&nbsp;&bull;&nbsp;MATE</entry>
1213+ <entry>&task-desktop-mate-inst;</entry>
1214+ <entry>&task-desktop-mate-dl;</entry>
1215+ <entry>&task-desktop-mate-tot;</entry>
1216+</row>
1217+<row condition="not-ubuntu">
1218+ <entry>&nbsp;&nbsp;&bull;&nbsp;Cinnamon</entry>
1219+ <entry>&task-desktop-cinnamon-inst;</entry>
1220+ <entry>&task-desktop-cinnamon-dl;</entry>
1221+ <entry>&task-desktop-cinnamon-tot;</entry>
1222+</row>
1223+
1224+<row condition="not-ubuntu">
1225+ <entry>Laptop</entry>
1226+ <entry>&task-laptop-inst;</entry>
1227+ <entry>&task-laptop-dl;</entry>
1228+ <entry>&task-laptop-tot;</entry>
1229+</row>
1230+
1231+<row>
1232+ <entry>Web server</entry>
1233+ <entry>&task-web-inst;</entry>
1234+ <entry>&task-web-dl;</entry>
1235+ <entry>&task-web-tot;</entry>
1236+</row>
1237+
1238+<row>
1239+ <entry>Print server</entry>
1240+ <entry>&task-print-inst;</entry>
1241+ <entry>&task-print-dl;</entry>
1242+ <entry>&task-print-tot;</entry>
1243+</row>
1244+
1245+<row condition="not-ubuntu">
1246+ <entry>SSH server</entry>
1247+ <entry>&task-ssh-inst;</entry>
1248+ <entry>&task-ssh-dl;</entry>
1249+ <entry>&task-ssh-tot;</entry>
1250+</row>
1251+
1252+</tbody>
1253+</tgroup></informaltable>
1254+
1255+</para><para>
1256+
1257+If you install in a language other than English, <command>tasksel</command>
1258+may automatically install a <firstterm>localization task</firstterm>, if one
1259+is available for your language. Space requirements differ per language;
1260+you should allow up to 350MB in total for download and installation.
1261+
1262+</para>
1263+ </sect1>
1264+
1265+ <sect1 id="disk-space-needed">
1266+ <title>Disk Space Needed</title>
1267+<para>
1268+
1269+A minimal server installation of &releasename; requires 400MB of disk space.
1270+<phrase condition="supports-desktop">The standard Ubuntu desktop installation
1271+requires 2GB.</phrase>
1272+
1273+</para>
1274+ </sect1>
1275
1276=== added file 'fr/appendix/gpl.xml'
1277--- fr/appendix/gpl.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
1278+++ fr/appendix/gpl.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
1279@@ -0,0 +1,525 @@
1280+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
1281+<!-- $Id: gpl.xml 38979 2006-07-13 13:33:24Z fjp $ -->
1282+
1283+<appendix id="appendix-gpl"><title>GNU General Public License</title>
1284+
1285+<note condition="gpl-unofficial"><para>
1286+
1287+[[This note, consisting of two paragraphs, should only be included in your
1288+translation if you translate the GPL in this appendix.
1289+See build/lang-options/README on how to enable this paragraph and for
1290+additional information. Its condition is "gpl-unofficial".]]
1291+[[LEAVE THIS PARAGRAPH IN ENGLISH! Only replace {language} with the English
1292+name of your language. Do not change the link to the GPL!]]
1293+
1294+This is an unofficial translation of the GNU General Public License into
1295+{language}. It was not published by the Free Software Foundation, and does
1296+not legally state the distribution terms for software that uses the GNU
1297+GPL &mdash; only the original <ulink url="&url-gnu-copyleft;">English
1298+text</ulink> of the GNU GPL does that. However, we hope that this translation
1299+will help {language} speakers to better understand the GNU GPL.
1300+
1301+</para><para>
1302+
1303+[[See build/lang-options/README on how to enable this paragraph and for
1304+additional information. Its condition is "gpl-unofficial".]]
1305+[[THIS PARAGRAPH SHOULD BE TRANSLATED. Replace {language} with the English
1306+name of your language before translating. Do not change the link to the GPL!]]
1307+
1308+This is an unofficial translation of the GNU General Public License into
1309+{language}. It was not published by the Free Software Foundation, and does
1310+not legally state the distribution terms for software that uses the GNU
1311+GPL &mdash; only the original <ulink url="&url-gnu-copyleft;">English
1312+text</ulink> of the GNU GPL does that. However, we hope that this translation
1313+will help {language} speakers to better understand the GNU GPL.
1314+
1315+</para></note>
1316+<para>
1317+
1318+Version 2, June 1991
1319+
1320+<informalexample><screen>
1321+Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
1322+51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
1323+
1324+Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
1325+of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
1326+</screen></informalexample>
1327+
1328+</para>
1329+
1330+ <simplesect><title>Preamble</title>
1331+<para>
1332+
1333+The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom
1334+to share and change it. By contrast, the gnu General Public License
1335+is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
1336+software &mdash; to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
1337+General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
1338+Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit
1339+to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered
1340+by the gnu Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it
1341+to your programs, too.
1342+
1343+</para><para>
1344+
1345+When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
1346+price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
1347+have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge
1348+for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can
1349+get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces
1350+of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these
1351+things.
1352+
1353+</para><para>
1354+
1355+To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
1356+anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the
1357+rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for
1358+you if you distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
1359+
1360+</para><para>
1361+
1362+For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
1363+gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
1364+you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
1365+source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
1366+rights.
1367+
1368+</para><para>
1369+
1370+We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software,
1371+and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to
1372+copy, distribute and/or modify the software.
1373+
1374+</para><para>
1375+
1376+Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
1377+that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
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1379+we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the
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1382+
1383+</para><para>
1384+
1385+Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
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1391+
1392+</para><para>
1393+
1394+The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
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1396+
1397+</para>
1398+ </simplesect>
1399+
1400+ <simplesect><title>GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE</title>
1401+<para>
1402+
1403+<emphasis role="bold">TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION
1404+AND MODIFICATION</emphasis>
1405+
1406+</para><para>
1407+
1408+<emphasis role="bold">0.</emphasis>
1409+This License applies to any program or other work which contains a
1410+notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
1411+under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
1412+refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
1413+means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
1414+that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
1415+either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
1416+language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
1417+the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
1418+
1419+</para><para>
1420+
1421+Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
1422+covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
1423+running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the
1424+Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on
1425+the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
1426+Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
1427+
1428+</para><para>
1429+
1430+<emphasis role="bold">1.</emphasis>
1431+You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
1432+source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
1433+conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
1434+copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
1435+notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any
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1437+License along with the Program.
1438+
1439+</para><para>
1440+
1441+You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
1442+you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a
1443+fee.
1444+
1445+</para><para>
1446+
1447+<emphasis role="bold">2.</emphasis>
1448+You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
1449+of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
1450+distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
1451+above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
1452+
1453+</para>
1454+<orderedlist numeration='loweralpha'><listitem><para>
1455+
1456+You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
1457+stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
1458+
1459+</para></listitem>
1460+<listitem><para>
1461+
1462+You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
1463+whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part
1464+thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties
1465+under the terms of this License.
1466+
1467+</para></listitem>
1468+<listitem><para>
1469+
1470+If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when
1471+run, you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use
1472+in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement
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1474+no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that
1475+users may redistribute the program under these conditions, and
1476+telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if
1477+the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an
1478+announcement, your work based on the Program is not required to print
1479+an announcement.)
1480+
1481+</para></listitem></orderedlist>
1482+<para>
1483+
1484+These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
1485+identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
1486+and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
1487+themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
1488+sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
1489+distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
1490+on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
1491+this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
1492+entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote
1493+it.
1494+
1495+</para><para>
1496+
1497+Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
1498+your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
1499+exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
1500+collective works based on the Program.
1501+
1502+</para><para>
1503+
1504+In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the
1505+Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a
1506+volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other
1507+work under the scope of this License.
1508+
1509+</para><para>
1510+
1511+<emphasis role="bold">3.</emphasis>
1512+You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
1513+under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
1514+Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the
1515+following:
1516+
1517+</para>
1518+<orderedlist numeration='loweralpha'><listitem><para>
1519+
1520+Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
1521+source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1
1522+and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange;
1523+or,
1524+
1525+</para></listitem>
1526+<listitem><para>
1527+
1528+Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years,
1529+to give any third party, for a charge no more than your cost of
1530+physically performing source distribution, a complete
1531+machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
1532+distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
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1534+
1535+</para></listitem>
1536+<listitem><para>
1537+
1538+Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to
1539+distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is allowed
1540+only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the
1541+program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in
1542+accord with Subsection b above.)
1543+
1544+</para></listitem></orderedlist>
1545+<para>
1546+
1547+The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
1548+making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
1549+code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
1550+associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
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1552+special exception, the source code distributed need not include
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1554+form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
1555+operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
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1557+
1558+</para><para>
1559+
1560+If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
1561+access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
1562+access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
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1564+compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
1565+
1566+</para><para>
1567+
1568+<emphasis role="bold">4.</emphasis>
1569+You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
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1572+void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
1573+License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from
1574+you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so
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1576+
1577+</para><para>
1578+
1579+<emphasis role="bold">5.</emphasis>
1580+You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
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1583+prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
1584+modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
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1588+
1589+</para><para>
1590+
1591+<emphasis role="bold">6.</emphasis>
1592+Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
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1598+parties to this License.
1599+
1600+</para><para>
1601+
1602+<emphasis role="bold">7.</emphasis>
1603+If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
1604+infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
1605+conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
1606+otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do
1607+not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
1608+distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under
1609+this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a
1610+consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example,
1611+if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of
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1613+through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this
1614+License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the
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1616+
1617+</para><para>
1618+
1619+If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
1620+any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended
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1622+circumstances.
1623+
1624+</para><para>
1625+
1626+It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
1627+patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
1628+such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
1629+integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
1630+implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
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1633+system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is
1634+willing to distribute software through any other system and a
1635+licensee cannot impose that choice.
1636+
1637+</para><para>
1638+
1639+This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
1640+be a consequence of the rest of this License.
1641+
1642+</para><para>
1643+
1644+<emphasis role="bold">8.</emphasis>
1645+If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
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1652+
1653+</para><para>
1654+
1655+<emphasis role="bold">9.</emphasis>
1656+The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
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1666+Free Software Foundation.
1667+
1668+</para><para>
1669+
1670+<emphasis role="bold">10.</emphasis>
1671+If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
1672+programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the
1673+author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by
1674+the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation;
1675+we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by
1676+the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our
1677+free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software
1678+generally.
1679+
1680+</para><para>
1681+
1682+<emphasis role="bold">NO WARRANTY</emphasis>
1683+
1684+</para><para>
1685+
1686+<emphasis role="bold">11.</emphasis>
1687+BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
1688+WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.
1689+EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR
1690+OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY
1691+KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
1692+IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
1693+PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE
1694+PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME
1695+THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
1696+
1697+</para><para>
1698+
1699+<emphasis role="bold">12.</emphasis>
1700+IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
1701+WRITING WILL AND COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY
1702+AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU
1703+FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
1704+CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE
1705+PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING
1706+RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A
1707+FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF
1708+SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
1709+SUCH DAMAGES.
1710+
1711+</para><para>
1712+
1713+<emphasis role="bold">END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS</emphasis>
1714+
1715+</para>
1716+ </simplesect>
1717+
1718+ <simplesect><title>How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs</title>
1719+<para>
1720+
1721+If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
1722+possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make
1723+it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under
1724+these terms.
1725+
1726+</para><para>
1727+
1728+To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
1729+to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
1730+convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
1731+the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
1732+
1733+<informalexample><screen>
1734+<replaceable>one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.</replaceable>
1735+Copyright (C) <replaceable>year name of author</replaceable>
1736+
1737+This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
1738+modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
1739+as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
1740+of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
1741+
1742+This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
1743+but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
1744+MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
1745+GNU General Public License for more details.
1746+
1747+You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
1748+along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
1749+Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
1750+</screen></informalexample>
1751+
1752+</para><para>
1753+
1754+Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper
1755+mail.
1756+
1757+</para><para>
1758+
1759+If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like
1760+this when it starts in an interactive mode:
1761+
1762+<informalexample><screen>
1763+Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) <replaceable>year name of author</replaceable>
1764+Gnomovision comes with absolutely no warranty; for details
1765+type `show w'. This is free software, and you are welcome
1766+to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c'
1767+for details.
1768+</screen></informalexample>
1769+
1770+</para><para>
1771+
1772+The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the
1773+appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the
1774+commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and
1775+`show c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items &mdash; whatever
1776+suits your program.
1777+
1778+</para><para>
1779+
1780+You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
1781+your school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the
1782+program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
1783+
1784+<informalexample><screen>
1785+Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the
1786+program `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written
1787+by James Hacker.
1788+
1789+<replaceable>signature of Ty Coon</replaceable>, 1 April 1989
1790+Ty Coon, President of Vice
1791+</screen></informalexample>
1792+
1793+</para><para>
1794+
1795+This General Public License does not permit incorporating your
1796+program into proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine
1797+library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking
1798+proprietary applications with the library. If this is what you want
1799+to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this
1800+License.
1801+
1802+</para>
1803+ </simplesect>
1804+</appendix>
1805
1806=== added file 'fr/appendix/plip.xml'
1807--- fr/appendix/plip.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
1808+++ fr/appendix/plip.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
1809@@ -0,0 +1,187 @@
1810+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
1811+<!-- $Id: plip.xml 64916 2010-10-08 22:15:00Z holger-guest $ -->
1812+
1813+ <sect1 id="plip" arch="x86">
1814+ <title>Installing &debian-gnu; over Parallel Line IP (PLIP)</title>
1815+
1816+<para>
1817+
1818+This section explains how to install &debian-gnu; on a computer without an
1819+Ethernet card, but with just a remote gateway computer attached via
1820+a Null-Modem cable (also called Null-Printer cable). The gateway
1821+computer should be connected to a network that has an &ubuntu; mirror
1822+on it (e.g. to the Internet).
1823+
1824+</para><para>
1825+
1826+In the example in this appendix we will set up a PLIP connection using
1827+a gateway connected to the Internet over a dial-up connection (ppp0).
1828+We will use IP addresses 192.168.0.1 and 192.168.0.2 for the PLIP
1829+interfaces on the target system and the source system respectively
1830+(these addresses should be unused within your network address space).
1831+
1832+</para><para>
1833+
1834+The PLIP connection set up during the installation will also be available
1835+after the reboot into the installed system (see <xref linkend="boot-new"/>).
1836+
1837+</para><para>
1838+
1839+Before you start, you will need to check the BIOS configuration (IO base
1840+address and IRQ) for the parallel ports of both the source and target
1841+systems. The most common values are <literal>io=0x378</literal>,
1842+<literal>irq=7</literal>.
1843+
1844+</para>
1845+
1846+ <sect2>
1847+ <title>Requirements</title>
1848+
1849+<itemizedlist>
1850+<listitem><para>
1851+
1852+A target computer, called <emphasis>target</emphasis>, where &debian; will be
1853+installed.
1854+
1855+</para></listitem>
1856+<listitem><para>
1857+
1858+System installation media; see <xref linkend="installation-media"/>.
1859+
1860+</para></listitem>
1861+<listitem><para>
1862+
1863+Another computer connected to the Internet, called <emphasis>source</emphasis>,
1864+that will function as the gateway.
1865+
1866+</para></listitem>
1867+<listitem><para>
1868+
1869+A DB-25 Null-Modem cable. See the
1870+<ulink url="&url-plip-install-howto;">PLIP-Install-HOWTO</ulink> for more
1871+information on this cable and instructions how to make your own.
1872+
1873+</para></listitem>
1874+</itemizedlist>
1875+
1876+ </sect2>
1877+
1878+ <sect2>
1879+ <title>Setting up source</title>
1880+<para>
1881+
1882+The following shell script is a simple example of how to configure the
1883+source computer as a gateway to the Internet using ppp0.
1884+
1885+<informalexample><screen>
1886+#!/bin/sh
1887+
1888+# We remove running modules from kernel to avoid conflicts and to
1889+# reconfigure them manually.
1890+modprobe -r lp parport_pc
1891+modprobe parport_pc io=<replaceable>0x378</replaceable> irq=<replaceable>7</replaceable>
1892+modprobe plip
1893+
1894+# Configure the plip interface (plip0 for me, see dmesg | grep plip)
1895+ifconfig <replaceable>plip0 192.168.0.2</replaceable> pointopoint <replaceable>192.168.0.1</replaceable> netmask 255.255.255.255 up
1896+
1897+# Configure gateway
1898+modprobe iptable_nat
1899+iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o <replaceable>ppp0</replaceable> -j MASQUERADE
1900+echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
1901+</screen></informalexample>
1902+
1903+</para>
1904+ </sect2>
1905+
1906+ <sect2>
1907+ <title>Installing target</title>
1908+<para>
1909+
1910+Boot the installation media. The installation needs to be run in
1911+expert mode; enter <userinput>expert</userinput> at the boot prompt.
1912+If you need to set parameters for kernel modules, you also need to
1913+do this at the boot prompt. For example, to boot the installer and
1914+set values for the <quote>io</quote> and <quote>irq</quote> options
1915+for the parport_pc module, enter the following at the boot prompt:
1916+
1917+<informalexample><screen>
1918+expert parport_pc.io=<replaceable>0x378</replaceable> parport_pc.irq=<replaceable>7</replaceable>
1919+</screen></informalexample>
1920+
1921+Below are the answers that should be given during various stages of
1922+the installation.
1923+
1924+</para>
1925+
1926+<orderedlist>
1927+<listitem><para>
1928+
1929+<guimenuitem>Load installer components from CD</guimenuitem>
1930+
1931+</para><para>
1932+
1933+Select the <userinput>plip-modules</userinput> option from the list; this
1934+will make the PLIP drivers available to the installation system.
1935+
1936+</para></listitem>
1937+<listitem><para>
1938+
1939+<guimenuitem>Detect network hardware</guimenuitem>
1940+
1941+</para>
1942+
1943+ <itemizedlist>
1944+ <listitem><para>
1945+
1946+If target <emphasis>does</emphasis> have a network card, a list of driver
1947+modules for detected cards will be shown. If you want to force &d-i; to
1948+use plip instead, you have to deselect all listed driver modules.
1949+Obviously, if target doesn't have a network card, the installer will not
1950+show this list.
1951+
1952+ </para></listitem>
1953+ <listitem><para>
1954+
1955+Because no network card was detected/selected earlier, the installer will
1956+ask you to select a network driver module from a list.
1957+Select the <userinput>plip</userinput> module.
1958+
1959+ </para></listitem>
1960+ </itemizedlist>
1961+
1962+</listitem>
1963+<listitem><para>
1964+
1965+<guimenuitem>Configure the network</guimenuitem>
1966+
1967+ <itemizedlist>
1968+ <listitem><para>
1969+
1970+Auto-configure network with DHCP: No
1971+
1972+ </para></listitem>
1973+ <listitem><para>
1974+
1975+IP address: <userinput><replaceable>192.168.0.1</replaceable></userinput>
1976+
1977+ </para></listitem>
1978+ <listitem><para>
1979+
1980+Point-to-point address:
1981+<userinput><replaceable>192.168.0.2</replaceable></userinput>
1982+
1983+ </para></listitem>
1984+ <listitem><para>
1985+
1986+Name server addresses: you can enter the same addresses used on
1987+source (see <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>)
1988+
1989+ </para></listitem>
1990+ </itemizedlist>
1991+
1992+</para></listitem>
1993+</orderedlist>
1994+
1995+ </sect2>
1996+ </sect1>
1997
1998=== added file 'fr/appendix/pppoe.xml'
1999--- fr/appendix/pppoe.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
2000+++ fr/appendix/pppoe.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
2001@@ -0,0 +1,109 @@
2002+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
2003+<!-- $Id: pppoe.xml 64829 2010-09-20 23:44:21Z sthibault $ -->
2004+
2005+ <sect1 id="pppoe" arch="not-s390">
2006+ <title>Installing &debian-gnu; using PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)</title>
2007+
2008+<para>
2009+
2010+In some countries PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a common protocol for
2011+broadband (ADSL or cable) connections to an Internet Service Provider.
2012+Setting up a network connection using PPPoE is not supported by default
2013+in the installer, but can be made to work very simply. This section
2014+explains how.
2015+
2016+</para><para>
2017+
2018+The PPPoE connection set up during the installation will also be available
2019+after the reboot into the installed system (see <xref linkend="boot-new"/>).
2020+
2021+</para><para>
2022+
2023+To have the option of setting up and using PPPoE during the installation,
2024+you will need to install using one of the CD-ROM/DVD images that are
2025+available. It is not supported for other installation methods (e.g.
2026+netboot<phrase condition="supports-floppy-boot"> or floppy</phrase>).
2027+
2028+</para><para>
2029+
2030+Installing over PPPoE is mostly the same as any other installation. The
2031+following steps explain the differences.
2032+
2033+</para>
2034+
2035+<itemizedlist>
2036+<listitem><para>
2037+
2038+Boot the installer with the boot parameter
2039+<userinput>modules=ppp-udeb</userinput><footnote arch="x86">
2040+
2041+<para>
2042+See <xref linkend="boot-screen"/> for information on
2043+how to add a boot parameter.
2044+</para>
2045+
2046+</footnote>.
2047+This will ensure the component responsible for the setup of PPPoE
2048+(<classname>ppp-udeb</classname>) will be loaded and run automatically.
2049+
2050+</para></listitem>
2051+<listitem><para>
2052+
2053+Follow the regular initial steps of the installation (language,
2054+country and keyboard selection; the loading of additional installer
2055+components<footnote>
2056+
2057+<para>
2058+
2059+The <classname>ppp-udeb</classname> component is loaded as one of
2060+the additional components in this step. If you want to install at
2061+medium or low priority (expert mode), you can also manually select
2062+the <classname>ppp-udeb</classname> instead of entering the
2063+<quote>modules</quote> parameter at the boot prompt.
2064+
2065+</para>
2066+
2067+</footnote>).
2068+
2069+</para></listitem>
2070+<listitem><para>
2071+
2072+The next step is the detection of network hardware, in order to identify
2073+any Ethernet cards present in the system.
2074+
2075+</para></listitem>
2076+<listitem><para>
2077+
2078+After this the actual setup of PPPoE is started. The installer will probe
2079+all the detected Ethernet interfaces in an attempt to find a PPPoE
2080+concentrator (a type of server which handles PPPoE connections).
2081+
2082+</para><para>
2083+
2084+It is possible that the concentrator will not to be found at the first
2085+attempt. This can happen occasionally on slow or loaded networks or with
2086+faulty servers. In most cases a second attempt to detect the concentrator
2087+will be successful; to retry, select <guimenuitem>Configure and start a
2088+PPPoE connection</guimenuitem> from the main menu of the installer.
2089+
2090+</para></listitem>
2091+<listitem><para>
2092+
2093+After a concentrator is found, the user will be prompted to type the login
2094+information (the PPPoE username and password).
2095+
2096+</para></listitem>
2097+<listitem><para>
2098+
2099+At this point the installer will use the provided information to establish
2100+the PPPoE connection. If the correct information was provided, the PPPoE
2101+connection should be configured and the installer should be able to use it
2102+to connect to the Internet and retrieve packages over it (if needed). If
2103+the login information is not correct or some error appears, the installer
2104+will stop, but the configuration can be attempted again by selecting the
2105+menu entry <guimenuitem>Configure and start a PPPoE connection</guimenuitem>.
2106+
2107+</para></listitem>
2108+</itemizedlist>
2109+
2110+ </sect1>
2111
2112=== added file 'fr/appendix/preseed.xml'
2113--- fr/appendix/preseed.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
2114+++ fr/appendix/preseed.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
2115@@ -0,0 +1,1784 @@
2116+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
2117+<!-- $Id: preseed.xml 70122 2016-01-10 18:40:54Z philh $ -->
2118+
2119+<!--
2120+Be careful with the format of this file as it is parsed to generate
2121+the example preconfiguration file.
2122+In that file all text between <informalexample> tags that have the
2123+attribute 'role="example"' set is included, except if a 'condition'
2124+attribute is in force that does not match the specified release or if an
2125+'arch' attribute is in force that does not match the specified architecture.
2126+
2127+Currently only a single variant of the example file is generated (for i386).
2128+-->
2129+
2130+<appendix id="appendix-preseed">
2131+<title>Automating the installation using preseeding</title>
2132+
2133+<para>
2134+
2135+This appendix explains how to preseed answers to questions in &d-i; to
2136+automate your installation.
2137+
2138+</para><para>
2139+
2140+The configuration fragments used in this appendix are also available as an
2141+example preconfiguration file from &urlset-example-preseed;.
2142+
2143+</para>
2144+
2145+ <sect1 id="preseed-intro">
2146+ <title>Introduction</title>
2147+<para>
2148+
2149+Preseeding provides a way to set answers to questions asked during the
2150+installation process, without having to manually enter the answers while
2151+the installation is running. This makes it possible to fully automate most
2152+types of installation and even offers some features not available during
2153+normal installations.
2154+
2155+</para><para>
2156+
2157+Preseeding is not required. If you use an empty preseed file, the installer
2158+will behave just the same way as in a normal manual installation. Each
2159+question you preseed will (if you got it right!) modify the installation in
2160+some way from that baseline.
2161+
2162+</para>
2163+
2164+ <sect2 id="preseed-methods">
2165+ <title>Preseeding methods</title>
2166+<para>
2167+
2168+There are three methods that can be used for preseeding:
2169+<firstterm>initrd</firstterm>, <firstterm>file</firstterm> and
2170+<firstterm>network</firstterm>. Initrd preseeding will work with any
2171+installation method and supports preseeding of more things, but it requires
2172+the most preparation. File and network preseeding each can be used with
2173+different installation methods.
2174+
2175+</para><para>
2176+
2177+The following table shows which preseeding methods can be used with which
2178+installation methods.
2179+
2180+<informaltable>
2181+<tgroup cols="4">
2182+<thead>
2183+<row>
2184+ <entry>Installation method</entry><entry>initrd</entry>
2185+ <entry>file</entry><entry>network</entry>
2186+</row>
2187+</thead>
2188+
2189+<tbody>
2190+<row>
2191+ <entry>CD/DVD</entry>
2192+ <entry>yes</entry>
2193+ <entry>yes</entry>
2194+ <entry>yes<footnote id='apx-ps-net'>
2195+
2196+ <para>
2197+ but only if you have network access, and set <literal>preseed/url</literal>
2198+ appropriately
2199+ </para>
2200+
2201+ </footnote></entry>
2202+</row><row>
2203+ <entry>netboot</entry>
2204+ <entry>yes</entry>
2205+ <entry>no</entry>
2206+ <entry>yes</entry>
2207+</row><row>
2208+ <entry>hd-media <phrase condition="bootable-usb">(including usb-stick)</phrase></entry>
2209+ <entry>yes</entry>
2210+ <entry>yes</entry>
2211+ <entry>yes<footnoteref linkend="apx-ps-net"/></entry>
2212+</row><row condition="supports-floppy-boot">
2213+ <entry>floppy based (cd-drivers)</entry>
2214+ <entry>yes</entry>
2215+ <entry>yes</entry>
2216+ <entry>yes<footnoteref linkend="apx-ps-net"/></entry>
2217+</row><row condition="supports-floppy-boot">
2218+ <entry>floppy based (net-drivers)</entry>
2219+ <entry>yes</entry>
2220+ <entry>no</entry>
2221+ <entry>yes</entry>
2222+</row><row arch="s390">
2223+ <entry>generic</entry>
2224+ <entry>yes</entry>
2225+ <entry>no</entry>
2226+ <entry>yes</entry>
2227+</row>
2228+</tbody>
2229+
2230+</tgroup></informaltable>
2231+
2232+</para><para>
2233+
2234+An important difference between the preseeding methods is the point at which
2235+the preconfiguration file is loaded and processed. For initrd preseeding
2236+this is right at the start of the installation, before the first question is
2237+even asked. Preseeding from the kernel command line happens just after. It is
2238+thus possible to override configuration set in the initrd by editing the kernel
2239+command line (either in the bootloader configuration or manually at boot time
2240+for bootloaders that allow it). For file preseeding this is after the CD
2241+or CD image has been loaded. For network preseeding it is only after the
2242+network has been configured.
2243+
2244+</para><important><para>
2245+
2246+Obviously, any questions that have been processed before the
2247+preconfiguration file is loaded cannot be preseeded (this will include
2248+questions that are only displayed at medium or low priority, like the
2249+first hardware detection run). A not so convenient way to avoid these
2250+questions from being asked is to preseed them through the boot parameters,
2251+as described in <xref linkend="preseed-bootparms"/>.
2252+
2253+</para><para>
2254+
2255+In order to easily avoid the questions that would normally appear before the
2256+preseeding occurs, you can start the installer in <quote>auto</quote>
2257+mode. This delays questions that would normally be asked too early for
2258+preseeding (i.e. language, country and keyboard selection) until after
2259+the network comes up, thus allowing them to be preseeded. It also runs
2260+the installation at critical priority, which avoids many unimportant
2261+questions. See <xref linkend="preseed-auto"/> for details.
2262+
2263+</para></important>
2264+ </sect2>
2265+
2266+ <sect2 id="preseed-limitations">
2267+ <title>Limitations</title>
2268+<para>
2269+
2270+Although most questions used by &d-i; can be preseeded using this method,
2271+there are some notable exceptions. You must (re)partition an entire disk
2272+or use available free space on a disk; it is not possible to use existing
2273+partitions.
2274+
2275+</para>
2276+ </sect2>
2277+
2278+
2279+ <sect2 id="preseed-debconf">
2280+ <title>Debconf basics</title>
2281+<para>
2282+
2283+Preseeding makes use of the <classname>debconf</classname> framework. This
2284+framework is the preferred mechanism used in &debian; to interact with the user
2285+when configuring packages and also forms the heart of &d-i;.
2286+In the <classname>debconf</classname> framework questions or dialogs are
2287+based on <firstterm>templates</firstterm>. There are different types of
2288+templates for different types of questions. The actual questions are
2289+<quote>generated</quote> from templates at runtime; multiple questions can
2290+use the same template.
2291+
2292+</para><para>
2293+
2294+The following types of templates are relevant for preseeding.
2295+
2296+</para>
2297+
2298+<itemizedlist spacing="compact">
2299+<listitem><para>
2300+ string: allows the user to type any value
2301+</para></listitem>
2302+<listitem><para>
2303+ password: similar to string but the value typed is not displayed
2304+</para></listitem>
2305+<listitem><para>
2306+ boolean: for yes/no or true/false type of questions
2307+</para></listitem>
2308+<listitem><para>
2309+ select: allows the user to select one option from a list
2310+</para></listitem>
2311+<listitem><para>
2312+ multiselect: allows the user to select zero, one or more options from a list
2313+</para></listitem>
2314+<listitem><para>
2315+ note: used to display a message
2316+</para></listitem>
2317+</itemizedlist>
2318+
2319+<para>
2320+
2321+In &d-i; templates are stored in a readable file
2322+<filename>/var/cache/debconf/templates.dat</filename>. This file contains all fixed
2323+text and all translations. It can also contain a default value for the
2324+template. The fixed text can include variables that will be replaced at
2325+runtime.
2326+
2327+</para><para>
2328+
2329+Another readable file <filename>/var/cache/debconf/questions.dat</filename>
2330+is used to store the values for variables and the answers given to questions.
2331+A question always refers to the template used to ask it. For obvious
2332+security reasons the values for questions of type <quote>password</quote>
2333+are stored in a separate, non-readable file in the same directory.
2334+
2335+</para>
2336+ </sect2>
2337+
2338+ </sect1>
2339+
2340+
2341+ <sect1 id="preseed-using">
2342+ <title>Using preseeding</title>
2343+<para>
2344+
2345+You will first need to create a preconfiguration file and place it in
2346+the location from where you want to use it. Creating the preconfiguration file
2347+is covered later in this appendix. Putting it in the correct location is fairly
2348+straightforward for network preseeding or if you want to read the file off
2349+a floppy or usb-stick. If you want to include the file on a CD or DVD, you
2350+will have to remaster the ISO image. How to get the preconfiguration file
2351+included in the initrd is outside the scope of this document; please consult
2352+the developers' documentation for &d-i;.
2353+
2354+</para><para>
2355+
2356+An example preconfiguration file that you can use as basis for your own
2357+preconfiguration file is available from &urlset-example-preseed;. This file is
2358+based on the configuration fragments included in this appendix.
2359+
2360+</para>
2361+
2362+ <sect2 id="preseed-loading">
2363+ <title>Loading the preconfiguration file</title>
2364+<para>
2365+
2366+If you are using initrd preseeding, you only have to make sure a file named
2367+<filename>preseed.cfg</filename> is included in the root directory of the
2368+initrd. The installer will automatically check if this file is present and
2369+load it.
2370+
2371+</para><para>
2372+
2373+For the other preseeding methods you need to tell the installer what file
2374+to use when you boot it. This is normally done by passing the kernel a boot
2375+parameter, either manually at boot time or by editing the bootloader
2376+configuration file <phrase arch="linux-any">(e.g.
2377+<filename>syslinux.cfg</filename>) and adding the parameter to the end of
2378+the append line(s) for the kernel.</phrase><phrase arch="kfreebsd-any">(e.g.
2379+<filename>grub.cfg</filename>) and adding the parameter as a new
2380+<literal>set</literal> line for the kernel.</phrase><phrase arch="hurd-any">(e.g.
2381+<filename>grub.cfg</filename>) and adding the parameter to the end of the
2382+<filename>gnumach.gz</filename> line.</phrase>
2383+
2384+</para><para>
2385+
2386+If you do specify the preconfiguration file in the bootloader configuration,
2387+you might change the configuration so you don't need to hit enter to boot the
2388+installer. <phrase arch="linux-any">For syslinux this means setting the timeout
2389+to <literal>1</literal> in <filename>syslinux.cfg</filename>.</phrase><phrase
2390+arch="kfrebsd-any;hurd-any">For grub this means setting the timeout to
2391+<literal>0</literal> in <filename>grub.cfg</filename>.</phrase>
2392+
2393+</para><para>
2394+
2395+To make sure the installer gets the right preconfiguration file, you can
2396+optionally specify a checksum for the file. Currently this needs to be a
2397+md5sum, and if specified it must match the preconfiguration file or the
2398+installer will refuse to use it.
2399+
2400+</para>
2401+
2402+<informalexample><screen>
2403+Boot parameters to specify:
2404+- if you're netbooting:
2405+ preseed/url=http://host/path/to/preseed.cfg
2406+ preseed/url/checksum=5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
2407+- or
2408+ preseed/url=tftp://host/path/to/preseed.cfg
2409+ preseed/url/checksum=5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
2410+
2411+- if you're booting a remastered CD:
2412+ preseed/file=/cdrom/preseed.cfg
2413+ preseed/file/checksum=5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
2414+
2415+- if you're installing from USB media (put the preconfiguration file in the
2416+ toplevel directory of the USB stick):
2417+ preseed/file=/hd-media/preseed.cfg
2418+ preseed/file/checksum=5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
2419+</screen></informalexample>
2420+
2421+<para>
2422+
2423+Note that <filename>preseed/url</filename> can be shortened to just
2424+<filename>url</filename>, <filename>preseed/file</filename> to just
2425+<filename>file</filename> and <filename>preseed/file/checksum</filename> to just
2426+<filename>preseed-md5</filename> when they are passed as boot parameters.
2427+
2428+</para>
2429+ </sect2>
2430+
2431+ <sect2 id="preseed-bootparms">
2432+ <title>Using boot parameters to preseed questions</title>
2433+<para>
2434+
2435+If a preconfiguration file cannot be used to preseed some steps, the
2436+install can still be fully automated, since you can pass preseed values on
2437+the command line when booting the installer.
2438+
2439+</para><para>
2440+
2441+Boot parameters can also be used if you do not really want to use preseeding,
2442+but just want to provide an answer for a specific question. Some examples where
2443+this can be useful are documented elsewhere in this manual.
2444+
2445+</para><para>
2446+
2447+To set a value to be used inside &d-i;, just pass
2448+<userinput><replaceable>path/to/variable</replaceable>=<replaceable>value</replaceable></userinput>
2449+for any of the preseed variables listed in the examples in this appendix.
2450+If a value is to be used to configure packages for the target system, you
2451+will need to prepend the <firstterm>owner</firstterm><footnote>
2452+
2453+<para>
2454+The owner of a debconf variable (or template) is normally the name of the
2455+package that contains the corresponding debconf template. For variables
2456+used in the installer itself the owner is <quote>d-i</quote>.
2457+Templates and variables can have more than one owner which helps to
2458+determine whether they can be removed from the debconf database if the
2459+package is purged.
2460+</para>
2461+
2462+</footnote> of the variable as in
2463+<userinput><replaceable>owner</replaceable>:<replaceable>path/to/variable</replaceable>=<replaceable>value</replaceable></userinput>.
2464+If you don't specify the owner, the value for the variable will not be
2465+copied to the debconf database in the target system and thus remain unused
2466+during the configuration of the relevant package.
2467+
2468+</para><para>
2469+
2470+Normally, preseeding a question in this way will mean that the question will
2471+not be asked. To set a specific default value for a question, but still have
2472+the question asked, use <quote>?=</quote> instead of <quote>=</quote> as
2473+operator. See also <xref linkend="preseed-seenflag"/>.
2474+
2475+</para><para>
2476+
2477+Note that some variables that are frequently set at the boot prompt
2478+have a shorter alias. If an alias is available, it is used in the
2479+examples in this appendix instead of the full variable. The
2480+<literal>preseed/url</literal> variable for example has been aliased as
2481+<literal>url</literal>. Another example is the <literal>tasks</literal>
2482+alias, which translates to <literal>tasksel:tasksel/first</literal>.
2483+
2484+</para><para>
2485+
2486+A <quote>---</quote> in the boot options has special meaning. Kernel
2487+parameters that appear after the last <quote>---</quote> may be copied
2488+into the bootloader configuration for the installed system (if supported by
2489+the installer for the bootloader). The installer will automatically filter
2490+out any options (like preconfiguration options) that it recognizes.
2491+
2492+</para>
2493+<note arch="linux-any"><para>
2494+
2495+Current linux kernels (2.6.9 and later) accept a maximum of 32 command line
2496+options and 32 environment options, including any options added by default
2497+for the installer. If these numbers are exceeded, the kernel will panic
2498+(crash). (For earlier kernels, these numbers were lower.)
2499+
2500+</para></note>
2501+<para>
2502+
2503+For most installations some of the default options in your bootloader
2504+configuration file, like <literal>vga=normal</literal>, may be safely
2505+removed which may allow you to add more options for preseeding.
2506+
2507+</para>
2508+<note><para>
2509+
2510+It may not always be possible to specify values with spaces for boot
2511+parameters, even if you delimit them with quotes.
2512+
2513+</para></note>
2514+ </sect2>
2515+
2516+ <sect2 id="preseed-auto">
2517+ <title>Auto mode</title>
2518+<para>
2519+
2520+There are several features of &debian; Installer that combine to allow
2521+fairly simple command lines at the boot prompt to result in
2522+arbitrarily complex customized automatic installs.
2523+
2524+</para><para>
2525+
2526+This is enabled by using the <literal>Automated install</literal> boot choice,
2527+also called <literal>auto</literal> for some architectures or boot methods. In
2528+this section, <literal>auto</literal> is thus not a parameter, it means
2529+selecting that boot choice, and appending the following boot parameters on
2530+the boot prompt. <phrase arch="x86">See <xref linkend="boot-screen"/> for
2531+information on how to add a boot parameter.</phrase>
2532+
2533+</para><para>
2534+
2535+To illustrate this, here are some examples that can be used at the boot prompt:
2536+
2537+<informalexample><screen>
2538+auto url=autoserver
2539+</screen></informalexample>
2540+
2541+This relies on there being a DHCP server that will get the machine to
2542+the point where <literal>autoserver</literal> can be resolved by DNS,
2543+perhaps after adding the local domain if that was provided by DHCP.
2544+If this was done at a site where the domain is
2545+<literal>example.com</literal>, and they have a reasonably sane DHCP
2546+setup, it would result in the preseed file being retrieved from
2547+<literal>http://autoserver.example.com/d-i/&releasename;/./preseed.cfg</literal>.
2548+
2549+</para><para>
2550+
2551+The last part of that url (<literal>d-i/&releasename;/./preseed.cfg</literal>)
2552+is taken from <literal>auto-install/defaultroot</literal>. By default
2553+this includes the directory <literal>&releasename;</literal> to allow future versions
2554+to specify their own codename and let people migrate forwards in a
2555+controlled manner. The <literal>/./</literal> bit is used to indicate
2556+a root, relative to which subsequent paths can be anchored (for use in
2557+preseed/include and preseed/run). This allows files to be specified
2558+either as full URLs, paths starting with / that are thus anchored, or
2559+even paths relative to the location where the last preseed file was
2560+found. This can be used to construct more portable scripts where an
2561+entire hierarchy of scripts can be moved to a new location without
2562+breaking it, for example copying the files onto a USB stick when they
2563+started out on a web server. In this example, if the preseed file
2564+sets <literal>preseed/run</literal> to
2565+<literal>/scripts/late_command.sh</literal> then the file will be
2566+fetched from
2567+<literal>http://autoserver.example.com/d-i/&releasename;/./scripts/late_command.sh</literal>.
2568+
2569+</para><para>
2570+
2571+If there is no local DHCP or DNS infrastructure, or if you do not want to
2572+use the default path to <filename>preseed.cfg</filename>, you can still
2573+use an explicit url, and if you don't use the <literal>/./</literal>
2574+element it will be anchored to the start of the path (i.e. the third
2575+<literal>/</literal> in the URL). Here is an example that requires minimal
2576+support from the local network infrastructure:
2577+
2578+<informalexample><screen>
2579+auto url=<replaceable>http://192.168.1.2/path/to/mypreseed.file</replaceable>
2580+</screen></informalexample>
2581+
2582+The way this works is that:
2583+<itemizedlist spacing="compact">
2584+<listitem><para>
2585+if the URL is missing a protocol, http is assumed,
2586+</para></listitem>
2587+<listitem><para>
2588+if the hostname section contains no periods, it has the domain derived
2589+from DHCP appended to it, and
2590+</para></listitem>
2591+<listitem><para>
2592+if there's no <literal>/</literal>'s after the hostname, then the default
2593+path is added.
2594+</para></listitem>
2595+</itemizedlist>
2596+
2597+</para><para>
2598+
2599+In addition to specifying the url, you can also specify settings that
2600+do not directly affect the behavior of &d-i; itself, but can be passed
2601+through to scripts specified using <literal>preseed/run</literal>
2602+in the loaded preseed file. At present, the only example of
2603+this is <literal>auto-install/classes</literal>, which has an alias
2604+<literal>classes</literal>. This can be used thus:
2605+
2606+<informalexample><screen>
2607+auto url=<replaceable>example.com</replaceable> classes=<replaceable>class_A;class_B</replaceable>
2608+</screen></informalexample>
2609+
2610+The classes could for example denote the type of system to be installed,
2611+or the localization to be used.
2612+
2613+</para><para>
2614+
2615+It is of course possible to extend this concept, and if you do, it is
2616+reasonable to use the auto-install namespace for this. So one might have
2617+something like <literal>auto-install/style</literal> which is then used
2618+in your scripts. If you feel the need to do this, please mention it on
2619+the <email>debian-boot@lists.debian.org</email> mailing list so that we
2620+can avoid namespace conflicts, and perhaps add an alias for the parameter
2621+for you.
2622+
2623+</para><para>
2624+
2625+The <literal>auto</literal> boot choice is not yet defined on all arches.
2626+The same effect may be achieved by simply adding the two
2627+parameters <literal>auto=true priority=critical</literal> to the kernel
2628+command line. The <literal>auto</literal> kernel parameter is an alias for
2629+<literal>auto-install/enable</literal> and setting it to
2630+<literal>true</literal> delays the
2631+locale and keyboard questions until after there has been a chance to
2632+preseed them, while <literal>priority</literal> is an alias for
2633+<literal>debconf/priority</literal> and setting it to
2634+<literal>critical</literal> stops any questions with a lower priority
2635+from being asked.
2636+
2637+</para><para>
2638+
2639+Additional options that may be of interest while attempting to
2640+automate an install while using DHCP are: <literal>interface=auto
2641+netcfg/dhcp_timeout=60</literal> which makes the machine choose the
2642+first viable NIC and be more patient about getting a reply to its
2643+DHCP query.
2644+
2645+</para>
2646+<tip><para>
2647+
2648+An extensive example of how to use this framework, including example scripts
2649+and classes, can be found on the <ulink url="http://hands.com/d-i/">website
2650+of its developer</ulink>. The examples available there also show many other
2651+nice effects that can be achieved by creative use of preconfiguration.
2652+
2653+</para></tip>
2654+ </sect2>
2655+
2656+ <sect2 id="preseed-aliases">
2657+ <title>Aliases useful with preseeding</title>
2658+<para>
2659+
2660+The following aliases can be useful when using (auto mode) preseeding.
2661+Note that these are simply short aliases for question names, and you
2662+always need to specify a value as well: for example,
2663+<literal>auto=true</literal> or <literal>interface=eth0</literal>.
2664+
2665+</para>
2666+
2667+<!-- Setting column width does not seem to work; use non-breaking spaces
2668+ to separate columns a bit -->
2669+<informaltable frame="none">
2670+<tgroup cols="2"><tbody>
2671+<row><entry>priority</entry><entry>debconf/priority</entry></row>
2672+<row><entry>fb</entry><entry>debian-installer/framebuffer</entry></row>
2673+<row><entry>language</entry><entry>debian-installer/language</entry></row>
2674+<row><entry>country</entry><entry>debian-installer/country</entry></row>
2675+<row><entry>locale</entry><entry>debian-installer/locale</entry></row>
2676+<row><entry>theme</entry><entry>debian-installer/theme</entry></row>
2677+<row><entry>auto</entry><entry>auto-install/enable</entry></row>
2678+<row><entry>classes</entry><entry>auto-install/classes</entry></row>
2679+<row><entry>file</entry><entry>preseed/file</entry></row>
2680+<row><entry>url</entry><entry>preseed/url</entry></row>
2681+<row><entry>domain</entry><entry>netcfg/get_domain</entry></row>
2682+<row><entry>hostname&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</entry><entry>netcfg/get_hostname</entry></row>
2683+<row><entry>interface</entry><entry>netcfg/choose_interface</entry></row>
2684+<row><entry>protocol</entry><entry>mirror/protocol</entry></row>
2685+<row><entry>suite</entry><entry>mirror/suite</entry></row>
2686+<row><entry>modules</entry><entry>anna/choose_modules</entry></row>
2687+<row><entry>recommends</entry><entry>base-installer/install-recommends</entry></row>
2688+<row><entry>tasks</entry><entry>tasksel:tasksel/first</entry></row>
2689+<row><entry>desktop</entry><entry>tasksel:tasksel/desktop</entry></row>
2690+<row><entry>dmraid</entry><entry>disk-detect/dmraid/enable</entry></row>
2691+<row><entry>keymap</entry><entry>keyboard-configuration/xkb-keymap</entry></row>
2692+<row><entry>preseed-md5</entry><entry>preseed/file/checksum</entry></row>
2693+</tbody></tgroup>
2694+</informaltable>
2695+
2696+ </sect2>
2697+
2698+ <sect2 id="preseed-dhcp">
2699+ <title>Using a DHCP server to specify preconfiguration files</title>
2700+<para>
2701+
2702+It's also possible to use DHCP to specify a preconfiguration file to download
2703+from the network. DHCP allows specifying a filename. Normally this is a file
2704+to netboot, but if it appears to be an URL then installation media that
2705+support network preseeding will download the file from the URL and use it as a
2706+preconfiguration file. Here is an example of how to set it up in the dhcpd.conf
2707+for version 3 of the ISC DHCP server (the isc-dhcp-server &debian; package).
2708+
2709+</para>
2710+
2711+<informalexample><screen>
2712+if substring (option vendor-class-identifier, 0, 3) = "d-i" {
2713+ filename "http://host/preseed.cfg";
2714+}
2715+</screen></informalexample>
2716+
2717+<para>
2718+
2719+Note that the above example limits this filename to DHCP clients that identify
2720+themselves as "d-i", so it will not affect regular DHCP clients, but only
2721+the installer. You can also put the text in a stanza for only one particular
2722+host to avoid preseeding all installs on your network.
2723+
2724+</para><para>
2725+
2726+A good way to use the DHCP preseeding is to only preseed values specific to
2727+your network, such as the &debian; mirror to use. This way installs on your
2728+network will automatically get a good mirror selected, but the rest of the
2729+installation can be performed interactively. Using DHCP preseeding to fully
2730+automate &debian; installs should only be done with care.
2731+
2732+</para>
2733+ </sect2>
2734+ </sect1>
2735+
2736+
2737+ <sect1 id="preseed-creating">
2738+ <title>Creating a preconfiguration file</title>
2739+<para>
2740+
2741+The preconfiguration file is in the format used by the
2742+<command>debconf-set-selections</command> command. The general format of
2743+a line in a preconfiguration file is:
2744+
2745+<informalexample><screen>
2746+&lt;owner&gt; &lt;question name&gt; &lt;question type&gt; &lt;value&gt;
2747+</screen></informalexample>
2748+
2749+</para><para>
2750+
2751+There are a few rules to keep in mind when writing a preconfiguration file.
2752+
2753+</para>
2754+
2755+<itemizedlist>
2756+<listitem><para>
2757+ Put only a single space or tab between type and value: any additional
2758+ whitespace will be interpreted as belonging to the value.
2759+</para></listitem>
2760+<listitem><para>
2761+ A line can be split into multiple lines by appending a backslash
2762+ (<quote><literal>\</literal></quote>) as the line continuation character.
2763+ A good place to split a line is after the question name; a bad place is
2764+ between type and value. Split lines will be joined into a single line
2765+ with all leading/trailing whitespace condensed to a single space.
2766+</para></listitem>
2767+<listitem><para>
2768+ For debconf variables (templates) used only in the installer itself, the
2769+ owner should be set to <quote>d-i</quote>; to preseed variables used
2770+ in the installed system, the name of the package that contains the
2771+ corresponding debconf template should be used. Only variables that have
2772+ their owner set to something other than <quote>d-i</quote> will be
2773+ propagated to the debconf database for the installed system.
2774+</para></listitem>
2775+<listitem><para>
2776+ Most questions need to be preseeded using the values valid in English and
2777+ not the translated values. However, there are some questions (for example
2778+ in <classname>partman</classname>) where the translated values need to be
2779+ used.
2780+</para></listitem>
2781+<listitem><para>
2782+ Some questions take a code as value instead of the English text that is
2783+ shown during installation.
2784+</para></listitem>
2785+</itemizedlist>
2786+
2787+<para>
2788+
2789+The easiest way to create a preconfiguration file is to use the example file
2790+linked in <xref linkend="preseed-contents"/> as basis and work from there.
2791+
2792+</para><para>
2793+
2794+An alternative method is to do a manual installation and then, after
2795+rebooting, use the <command>debconf-get-selections</command> from the
2796+<classname>debconf-utils</classname> package to dump both the debconf
2797+database and the installer's cdebconf database to a single file:
2798+
2799+<informalexample><screen>
2800+$ debconf-get-selections --installer &gt; <replaceable>file</replaceable>
2801+$ debconf-get-selections &gt;&gt; <replaceable>file</replaceable>
2802+</screen></informalexample>
2803+
2804+</para><para>
2805+
2806+However, a file generated in this manner will have some items that should
2807+not be preseeded, and the example file is a better starting place for most
2808+users.
2809+
2810+</para>
2811+
2812+<note><para>
2813+
2814+This method relies on the fact that, at the end of the installation, the
2815+installer's cdebconf database is saved to the installed system in
2816+<filename>/var/log/installer/cdebconf</filename>. However, because the
2817+database may contain sensitive information, by default the files are only
2818+readable by root.
2819+
2820+</para><para>
2821+
2822+The directory <filename>/var/log/installer</filename> and all files in it
2823+will be deleted from your system if you purge the package
2824+<classname>installation-report</classname>.
2825+
2826+</para></note>
2827+
2828+<para>
2829+
2830+To check possible values for questions, you can use <command>nano</command>
2831+to examine the files in <filename>/var/lib/cdebconf</filename> while an
2832+installation is in progress. View <filename>templates.dat</filename> for
2833+the raw templates and <filename>questions.dat</filename> for the current
2834+values and for the values assigned to variables.
2835+
2836+</para><para>
2837+
2838+To check if the format of your preconfiguration file is valid before performing
2839+an install, you can use the command <command>debconf-set-selections -c
2840+<replaceable>preseed.cfg</replaceable></command>.
2841+
2842+</para>
2843+ </sect1>
2844+
2845+
2846+ <sect1 id="preseed-contents">
2847+ <title>Contents of the preconfiguration file (for &releasename;)</title>
2848+<para>
2849+
2850+The configuration fragments used in this appendix are also available as an
2851+example preconfiguration file from &urlset-example-preseed;.
2852+
2853+</para><para>
2854+
2855+Note that this example is based on an installation for the Intel x86
2856+architecture. If you are installing a different architecture, some of the
2857+examples (like keyboard selection and bootloader installation) may not be
2858+relevant and will need to be replaced by debconf settings appropriate for
2859+your architecture.
2860+
2861+</para><para>
2862+
2863+Details on how the different Debian Installer components actually work can be
2864+found in <xref linkend="module-details"/>.
2865+
2866+</para>
2867+
2868+ <sect2 id="preseed-l10n">
2869+ <title>Localization</title>
2870+<para>
2871+
2872+During a normal install the questions about localization are asked first,
2873+so these values can only be preseeded via the initrd or kernel boot
2874+parameter methods. Auto mode (<xref linkend="preseed-auto"/>) includes
2875+the setting of <literal>auto-install/enable=true</literal> (normally via
2876+the <literal>auto</literal> preseed alias). This delays the asking of
2877+the localisation questions, so that they can be preseeded by any method.
2878+
2879+</para><para>
2880+
2881+The locale can be used to specify both language and country and can be any
2882+combination of a language supported by &d-i; and a recognized country. If
2883+the combination does not form a valid locale, the installer will automatically
2884+select a locale that is valid for the selected language.
2885+To specify the locale as a boot parameter, use
2886+<userinput>locale=<replaceable>en_US</replaceable></userinput>.
2887+
2888+</para><para>
2889+
2890+Although this method is very easy to use, it does not allow preseeding of
2891+all possible combinations of language, country and locale<footnote>
2892+
2893+<para>
2894+Preseeding <literal>locale</literal> to <userinput>en_NL</userinput> would
2895+for example result in <literal>en_US.UTF-8</literal> as default locale for
2896+the installed system. If e.g. <literal>en_GB.UTF-8</literal> is preferred
2897+instead, the values will need to be preseeded individually.
2898+</para>
2899+
2900+</footnote>. So alternatively the values can be preseeded individually.
2901+Language and country can also be specified as boot parameters.
2902+
2903+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
2904+# Preseeding only locale sets language, country and locale.
2905+d-i debian-installer/locale string en_US
2906+
2907+# The values can also be preseeded individually for greater flexibility.
2908+#d-i debian-installer/language string en
2909+#d-i debian-installer/country string NL
2910+#d-i debian-installer/locale string en_GB.UTF-8
2911+# Optionally specify additional locales to be generated.
2912+#d-i localechooser/supported-locales multiselect en_US.UTF-8, nl_NL.UTF-8
2913+</screen></informalexample>
2914+
2915+</para><para>
2916+
2917+Keyboard configuration consists of selecting a keymap and (for non-latin
2918+keymaps) a toggle key to switch between the non-latin keymap and the US keymap.
2919+Only basic keymap variants are available during installation. Advanced variants
2920+are available only in the installed system, through <command>dpkg-reconfigure
2921+keyboard-configuration</command>.
2922+
2923+</para><para>
2924+
2925+To specify the keymap as a boot parameter, use
2926+<userinput>console-setup/ask_detect=false
2927+keyboard-configuration/xkb-keymap=<replaceable>us</replaceable></userinput>.
2928+The keymap is an X layout name, as would be used in the
2929+<userinput>XkbLayout</userinput> option in
2930+<filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>.
2931+
2932+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
2933+# Keyboard selection.
2934+# Disable automatic (interactive) keymap detection.
2935+d-i console-setup/ask_detect boolean false
2936+d-i keyboard-configuration/xkb-keymap select us
2937+# To select a variant of the selected layout:
2938+#d-i keyboard-configuration/xkb-keymap select us(dvorak)
2939+# d-i keyboard-configuration/toggle select No toggling
2940+</screen></informalexample>
2941+
2942+</para><para>
2943+
2944+To skip keyboard configuration, preseed
2945+<classname>keymap</classname> with
2946+<userinput>SKIP</userinput>.
2947+This will result in the kernel keymap remaining active.
2948+
2949+</para>
2950+
2951+ </sect2>
2952+
2953+ <sect2 id="preseed-network">
2954+ <title>Network configuration</title>
2955+<para>
2956+
2957+Of course, preseeding the network configuration won't work if you're
2958+loading your preconfiguration file from the network. But it's great when
2959+you're booting from CD or USB stick. If you are loading preconfiguration
2960+files from the network, you can pass network config parameters by using
2961+kernel boot parameters.
2962+
2963+</para><para>
2964+
2965+If you need to pick a particular interface when netbooting before loading
2966+a preconfiguration file from the network, use a boot parameter such as
2967+<userinput>interface=<replaceable>eth1</replaceable></userinput>.
2968+
2969+</para><para>
2970+
2971+Although preseeding the network configuration is normally not possible when
2972+using network preseeding (using <quote>preseed/url</quote>), you can use
2973+the following hack to work around that, for example if you'd like to set a
2974+static address for the network interface. The hack is to force the network
2975+configuration to run again after the preconfiguration file has been loaded
2976+by creating a <quote>preseed/run</quote> script containing the following
2977+commands:
2978+
2979+<informalexample><screen>
2980+kill-all-dhcp; netcfg
2981+</screen></informalexample>
2982+
2983+</para><para>
2984+
2985+The following debconf variables are relevant for network configuration.
2986+
2987+</para>
2988+
2989+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
2990+# Disable network configuration entirely. This is useful for cdrom
2991+# installations on non-networked devices where the network questions,
2992+# warning and long timeouts are a nuisance.
2993+#d-i netcfg/enable boolean false
2994+
2995+# netcfg will choose an interface that has link if possible. This makes it
2996+# skip displaying a list if there is more than one interface.
2997+d-i netcfg/choose_interface select auto
2998+
2999+# To pick a particular interface instead:
3000+#d-i netcfg/choose_interface select eth1
3001+
3002+# To set a different link detection timeout (default is 3 seconds).
3003+# Values are interpreted as seconds.
3004+#d-i netcfg/link_wait_timeout string 10
3005+
3006+# If you have a slow dhcp server and the installer times out waiting for
3007+# it, this might be useful.
3008+#d-i netcfg/dhcp_timeout string 60
3009+#d-i netcfg/dhcpv6_timeout string 60
3010+
3011+# If you prefer to configure the network manually, uncomment this line and
3012+# the static network configuration below.
3013+#d-i netcfg/disable_autoconfig boolean true
3014+
3015+# If you want the preconfiguration file to work on systems both with and
3016+# without a dhcp server, uncomment these lines and the static network
3017+# configuration below.
3018+#d-i netcfg/dhcp_failed note
3019+#d-i netcfg/dhcp_options select Configure network manually
3020+
3021+# Static network configuration.
3022+#
3023+# IPv4 example
3024+#d-i netcfg/get_ipaddress string 192.168.1.42
3025+#d-i netcfg/get_netmask string 255.255.255.0
3026+#d-i netcfg/get_gateway string 192.168.1.1
3027+#d-i netcfg/get_nameservers string 192.168.1.1
3028+#d-i netcfg/confirm_static boolean true
3029+#
3030+# IPv6 example
3031+#d-i netcfg/get_ipaddress string fc00::2
3032+#d-i netcfg/get_netmask string ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff::
3033+#d-i netcfg/get_gateway string fc00::1
3034+#d-i netcfg/get_nameservers string fc00::1
3035+#d-i netcfg/confirm_static boolean true
3036+
3037+# Any hostname and domain names assigned from dhcp take precedence over
3038+# values set here. However, setting the values still prevents the questions
3039+# from being shown, even if values come from dhcp.
3040+d-i netcfg/get_hostname string unassigned-hostname
3041+d-i netcfg/get_domain string unassigned-domain
3042+
3043+# If you want to force a hostname, regardless of what either the DHCP
3044+# server returns or what the reverse DNS entry for the IP is, uncomment
3045+# and adjust the following line.
3046+#d-i netcfg/hostname string somehost
3047+
3048+# Disable that annoying WEP key dialog.
3049+d-i netcfg/wireless_wep string
3050+# The wacky dhcp hostname that some ISPs use as a password of sorts.
3051+#d-i netcfg/dhcp_hostname string radish
3052+
3053+# If non-free firmware is needed for the network or other hardware, you can
3054+# configure the installer to always try to load it, without prompting. Or
3055+# change to false to disable asking.
3056+#d-i hw-detect/load_firmware boolean true
3057+</screen></informalexample>
3058+
3059+<para>
3060+
3061+Please note that <command>netcfg</command> will automatically determine the
3062+netmask if <classname>netcfg/get_netmask</classname> is not preseeded. In
3063+this case, the variable has to be marked as <literal>seen</literal> for
3064+automatic installations. Similarly, <command>netcfg</command> will choose
3065+an appropriate address if <classname>netcfg/get_gateway</classname> is not
3066+set. As a special case, you can set
3067+<classname>netcfg/get_gateway</classname> to <quote>none</quote> to specify
3068+that no gateway should be used.
3069+
3070+</para>
3071+
3072+ </sect2>
3073+
3074+ <sect2 id="preseed-network-console">
3075+ <title>Network console</title>
3076+
3077+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3078+# Use the following settings if you wish to make use of the network-console
3079+# component for remote installation over SSH. This only makes sense if you
3080+# intend to perform the remainder of the installation manually.
3081+#d-i anna/choose_modules string network-console
3082+#d-i network-console/authorized_keys_url string http://10.0.0.1/openssh-key
3083+#d-i network-console/password password r00tme
3084+#d-i network-console/password-again password r00tme
3085+# Use this instead if you prefer to use key-based authentication
3086+#d-i network-console/authorized_keys_url http://host/authorized_keys
3087+</screen></informalexample>
3088+
3089+ </sect2>
3090+
3091+ <sect2 id="preseed-mirror">
3092+ <title>Mirror settings</title>
3093+<para>
3094+
3095+Depending on the installation method you use, a mirror may be used to
3096+download additional components of the installer, to install the base system,
3097+and to set up the <filename>/etc/apt/sources.list</filename> for the installed
3098+system.
3099+
3100+</para><para>
3101+
3102+The parameter <classname>mirror/suite</classname> determines the suite for
3103+the installed system.
3104+
3105+</para><para>
3106+
3107+The parameter <classname>mirror/udeb/suite</classname> determines the suite
3108+for additional components for the installer. It is only useful to set this
3109+if components are actually downloaded over the network and should match the
3110+suite that was used to build the initrd for the installation method used for
3111+the installation. Normally the installer will automatically use the correct
3112+value and there should be no need to set this.
3113+
3114+</para><para>
3115+
3116+The parameter <classname>mirror/udeb/components</classname> determines the
3117+archive components from which additional installer components are fetched.
3118+It is only useful to set this if components are actually downloaded over the
3119+network. The default components are main and restricted.
3120+
3121+</para>
3122+
3123+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3124+# If you select ftp, the mirror/country string does not need to be set.
3125+#d-i mirror/protocol string ftp
3126+d-i mirror/country string manual
3127+d-i mirror/http/hostname string &archive-mirror;
3128+d-i mirror/http/directory string /ubuntu
3129+d-i mirror/http/proxy string
3130+
3131+# Alternatively: by default, the installer uses CC.archive.ubuntu.com where
3132+# CC is the ISO-3166-2 code for the selected country. You can preseed this
3133+# so that it does so without asking.
3134+#d-i mirror/http/mirror select CC.archive.ubuntu.com
3135+
3136+# Suite to install.
3137+#d-i mirror/suite string &releasename;
3138+# Suite to use for loading installer components (optional).
3139+#d-i mirror/udeb/suite string &releasename;
3140+# Components to use for loading installer components (optional).
3141+#d-i mirror/udeb/components multiselect main, restricted
3142+</screen></informalexample>
3143+
3144+ </sect2>
3145+
3146+ <sect2 id="preseed-account">
3147+ <title>Account setup</title>
3148+<para>
3149+
3150+The password for the root account and name and password for a first regular
3151+user's account can be preseeded. For the passwords you can use either clear
3152+text values or crypt(3) <emphasis>hashes</emphasis>.
3153+
3154+</para>
3155+<warning><para>
3156+
3157+Be aware that preseeding passwords is not completely secure as everyone
3158+with access to the preconfiguration file will have the knowledge of these
3159+passwords. Storing hashed passwords is considered secure unless a weak
3160+hashing algorithm like DES or MD5 is used which allow for bruteforce
3161+attacks. Recommended password hashing algorithms are SHA-256 and SHA512.
3162+
3163+</para></warning>
3164+
3165+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3166+# Skip creation of a root account (normal user account will be able to
3167+# use sudo). The default is false; preseed this to true if you want to set
3168+# a root password.
3169+#d-i passwd/root-login boolean false
3170+# Alternatively, to skip creation of a normal user account.
3171+#d-i passwd/make-user boolean false
3172+
3173+# Root password, either in clear text
3174+#d-i passwd/root-password password r00tme
3175+#d-i passwd/root-password-again password r00tme
3176+# or encrypted using a crypt(3) hash.
3177+#d-i passwd/root-password-crypted password [crypt(3) hash]
3178+
3179+# To create a normal user account.
3180+#d-i passwd/user-fullname string Ubuntu User
3181+#d-i passwd/username string ubuntu
3182+# Normal user's password, either in clear text
3183+#d-i passwd/user-password password insecure
3184+#d-i passwd/user-password-again password insecure
3185+# or encrypted using a crypt(3) hash.
3186+#d-i passwd/user-password-crypted password [crypt(3) hash]
3187+# Create the first user with the specified UID instead of the default.
3188+#d-i passwd/user-uid string 1010
3189+# The installer will warn about weak passwords. If you are sure you know
3190+# what you're doing and want to override it, uncomment this.
3191+#d-i user-setup/allow-password-weak boolean true
3192+
3193+# The user account will be added to some standard initial groups. To
3194+# override that, use this.
3195+#d-i passwd/user-default-groups string audio cdrom video
3196+
3197+# Set to true if you want to encrypt the first user's home directory.
3198+d-i user-setup/encrypt-home boolean false
3199+</screen></informalexample>
3200+
3201+<para>
3202+
3203+The <classname>passwd/root-password-crypted</classname> and
3204+<classname>passwd/user-password-crypted</classname> variables can also
3205+be preseeded with <quote>!</quote> as their value. In that case, the
3206+corresponding account is disabled. This may be convenient for the root
3207+account, provided of course that an alternative method is set up to allow
3208+administrative activities or root login (for instance by using SSH key
3209+authentication or <command>sudo</command>).
3210+
3211+</para><para>
3212+
3213+The following command (available from the <classname>whois</classname> package)
3214+can be used to generate a SHA-512 based crypt(3) hash for a password:
3215+
3216+<informalexample><screen>
3217+mkpasswd -m sha-512
3218+</screen></informalexample>
3219+
3220+</para>
3221+ </sect2>
3222+
3223+ <sect2 id="preseed-time">
3224+ <title>Clock and time zone setup</title>
3225+
3226+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3227+# Controls whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC.
3228+d-i clock-setup/utc boolean true
3229+
3230+# You may set this to any valid setting for $TZ; see the contents of
3231+# /usr/share/zoneinfo/ for valid values.
3232+d-i time/zone string US/Eastern
3233+
3234+# Controls whether to use NTP to set the clock during the install
3235+d-i clock-setup/ntp boolean true
3236+# NTP server to use. The default is almost always fine here.
3237+#d-i clock-setup/ntp-server string ntp.example.com
3238+</screen></informalexample>
3239+
3240+ </sect2>
3241+
3242+ <sect2 id="preseed-partman">
3243+ <title>Partitioning</title>
3244+<para>
3245+
3246+Using preseeding to partition the harddisk is limited to what is supported
3247+by <classname>partman-auto</classname>. You can choose to partition
3248+either existing free space on a disk or a whole disk. The layout of the
3249+disk can be determined by using a predefined recipe, a custom recipe from
3250+a recipe file or a recipe included in the preconfiguration file.
3251+
3252+</para><para>
3253+
3254+Preseeding of advanced partition setups using RAID, LVM and encryption is
3255+supported, but not with the full flexibility possible when partitioning
3256+during a non-preseeded install.
3257+
3258+</para><para>
3259+
3260+The examples below only provide basic information on the use of recipes.
3261+For detailed information see the files
3262+<filename>partman-auto-recipe.txt</filename> and
3263+<filename>partman-auto-raid-recipe.txt</filename> included in the
3264+<classname>debian-installer</classname> package.
3265+Both files are also available from the
3266+<ulink url="&url-d-i-gitweb-doc-devel;">&d-i; source
3267+repository</ulink>. Note that the supported functionality may change
3268+between releases.
3269+
3270+</para>
3271+
3272+<warning><para>
3273+
3274+The identification of disks is dependent on the order in which their drivers
3275+are loaded. If there are multiple disks in the system, make very sure the
3276+correct one will be selected before using preseeding.
3277+
3278+</para></warning>
3279+
3280+ <sect3 id="preseed-partman-example">
3281+ <title>Partitioning example</title>
3282+
3283+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3284+# If the system has free space you can choose to only partition that space.
3285+# This is only honoured if partman-auto/method (below) is not set.
3286+# Alternatives: custom, some_device, some_device_crypto, some_device_lvm.
3287+#d-i partman-auto/init_automatically_partition select biggest_free
3288+
3289+# Alternatively, you may specify a disk to partition. If the system has only
3290+# one disk the installer will default to using that, but otherwise the device
3291+# name must be given in traditional, non-devfs format (so e.g. /dev/sda
3292+# and not e.g. /dev/discs/disc0/disc).
3293+# For example, to use the first SCSI/SATA hard disk:
3294+#d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/sda
3295+# In addition, you'll need to specify the method to use.
3296+# The presently available methods are:
3297+# - regular: use the usual partition types for your architecture
3298+# - lvm: use LVM to partition the disk
3299+# - crypto: use LVM within an encrypted partition
3300+d-i partman-auto/method string lvm
3301+
3302+# If one of the disks that are going to be automatically partitioned
3303+# contains an old LVM configuration, the user will normally receive a
3304+# warning. This can be preseeded away...
3305+d-i partman-lvm/device_remove_lvm boolean true
3306+# The same applies to pre-existing software RAID array:
3307+d-i partman-md/device_remove_md boolean true
3308+# And the same goes for the confirmation to write the lvm partitions.
3309+d-i partman-lvm/confirm boolean true
3310+d-i partman-lvm/confirm_nooverwrite boolean true
3311+
3312+# For LVM partitioning, you can select how much of the volume group to use
3313+# for logical volumes.
3314+#d-i partman-auto-lvm/guided_size string max
3315+#d-i partman-auto-lvm/guided_size string 10GB
3316+#d-i partman-auto-lvm/guided_size string 50%
3317+
3318+# You can choose one of the three predefined partitioning recipes:
3319+# - atomic: all files in one partition
3320+# - home: separate /home partition
3321+# - multi: separate /home, /var, and /tmp partitions
3322+d-i partman-auto/choose_recipe select atomic
3323+
3324+# Or provide a recipe of your own...
3325+# If you have a way to get a recipe file into the d-i environment, you can
3326+# just point at it.
3327+#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe_file string /hd-media/recipe
3328+
3329+# If not, you can put an entire recipe into the preconfiguration file in one
3330+# (logical) line. This example creates a small /boot partition, suitable
3331+# swap, and uses the rest of the space for the root partition:
3332+#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string \
3333+# boot-root :: \
3334+# 40 50 100 ext3 \
3335+# $primary{ } $bootable{ } \
3336+# method{ format } format{ } \
3337+# use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext3 } \
3338+# mountpoint{ /boot } \
3339+# . \
3340+# 500 10000 1000000000 ext3 \
3341+# method{ format } format{ } \
3342+# use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext3 } \
3343+# mountpoint{ / } \
3344+# . \
3345+# 64 512 300% linux-swap \
3346+# method{ swap } format{ } \
3347+# .
3348+
3349+# If you just want to change the default filesystem from ext3 to something
3350+# else, you can do that without providing a full recipe.
3351+#d-i partman/default_filesystem string ext4
3352+
3353+# The full recipe format is documented in the file partman-auto-recipe.txt
3354+# included in the 'debian-installer' package or available from D-I source
3355+# repository. This also documents how to specify settings such as file
3356+# system labels, volume group names and which physical devices to include
3357+# in a volume group.
3358+
3359+# This makes partman automatically partition without confirmation, provided
3360+# that you told it what to do using one of the methods above.
3361+d-i partman-partitioning/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
3362+d-i partman/choose_partition select finish
3363+d-i partman/confirm boolean true
3364+d-i partman/confirm_nooverwrite boolean true
3365+</screen></informalexample>
3366+
3367+ </sect3>
3368+ <sect3 id="preseed-partman-raid">
3369+ <title>Partitioning using RAID</title>
3370+<para>
3371+
3372+You can also use preseeding to set up partitions on software RAID arrays.
3373+Supported are RAID levels 0, 1, 5, 6 and 10, creating degraded arrays and
3374+specifying spare devices.
3375+
3376+</para><para arch="any-x86">
3377+
3378+If you are using RAID 1, you can preseed grub to install to all devices
3379+used in the array; see <xref linkend="preseed-bootloader"/>.
3380+
3381+</para>
3382+
3383+<warning><para>
3384+
3385+This type of automated partitioning is easy to get wrong. It is also
3386+functionality that receives relatively little testing from the developers
3387+of &d-i;. The responsibility to get the various recipes right (so they
3388+make sense and don't conflict) lies with the user.
3389+Check <filename>/var/log/syslog</filename> if you run into problems.
3390+
3391+</para></warning>
3392+
3393+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3394+# The method should be set to "raid".
3395+#d-i partman-auto/method string raid
3396+# Specify the disks to be partitioned. They will all get the same layout,
3397+# so this will only work if the disks are the same size.
3398+#d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/sda /dev/sdb
3399+
3400+# Next you need to specify the physical partitions that will be used.
3401+#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string \
3402+# multiraid :: \
3403+# 1000 5000 4000 raid \
3404+# $primary{ } method{ raid } \
3405+# . \
3406+# 64 512 300% raid \
3407+# method{ raid } \
3408+# . \
3409+# 500 10000 1000000000 raid \
3410+# method{ raid } \
3411+# .
3412+
3413+# Last you need to specify how the previously defined partitions will be
3414+# used in the RAID setup. Remember to use the correct partition numbers
3415+# for logical partitions. RAID levels 0, 1, 5, 6 and 10 are supported;
3416+# devices are separated using "#".
3417+# Parameters are:
3418+# &lt;raidtype&gt; &lt;devcount&gt; &lt;sparecount&gt; &lt;fstype&gt; &lt;mountpoint&gt; \
3419+# &lt;devices&gt; &lt;sparedevices&gt;
3420+
3421+#d-i partman-auto-raid/recipe string \
3422+# 1 2 0 ext3 / \
3423+# /dev/sda1#/dev/sdb1 \
3424+# . \
3425+# 1 2 0 swap - \
3426+# /dev/sda5#/dev/sdb5 \
3427+# . \
3428+# 0 2 0 ext3 /home \
3429+# /dev/sda6#/dev/sdb6 \
3430+# .
3431+
3432+# For additional information see the file partman-auto-raid-recipe.txt
3433+# included in the 'debian-installer' package or available from D-I source
3434+# repository.
3435+
3436+# This makes partman automatically partition without confirmation.
3437+d-i partman-md/confirm boolean true
3438+d-i partman-partitioning/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
3439+d-i partman/choose_partition select finish
3440+d-i partman/confirm boolean true
3441+d-i partman/confirm_nooverwrite boolean true
3442+</screen></informalexample>
3443+
3444+ </sect3>
3445+
3446+ <sect3 id="preseed-partman-mount-styles">
3447+ <title>Controlling how partitions are mounted</title>
3448+<para>
3449+
3450+Normally, filesystems are mounted using a universally unique identifier
3451+(UUID) as a key; this allows them to be mounted properly even if their
3452+device name changes. UUIDs are long and difficult to read, so, if you
3453+prefer, the installer can mount filesystems based on the traditional device
3454+names, or based on a label you assign. If you ask the installer to mount by
3455+label, any filesystems without a label will be mounted using a UUID instead.
3456+
3457+</para><para>
3458+
3459+Devices with stable names, such as LVM logical volumes, will continue to use
3460+their traditional names rather than UUIDs.
3461+
3462+</para>
3463+
3464+<warning><para>
3465+
3466+Traditional device names may change based on the order in which the kernel
3467+discovers devices at boot, which may cause the wrong filesystem to be
3468+mounted. Similarly, labels are likely to clash if you plug in a new disk or
3469+a USB drive, and if that happens your system's behaviour when started will
3470+be random.
3471+
3472+</para></warning>
3473+
3474+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3475+# The default is to mount by UUID, but you can also choose "traditional" to
3476+# use traditional device names, or "label" to try filesystem labels before
3477+# falling back to UUIDs.
3478+#d-i partman/mount_style select uuid
3479+</screen></informalexample>
3480+
3481+ </sect3>
3482+ </sect2>
3483+
3484+ <sect2 id="preseed-base-installer">
3485+ <title>Base system installation</title>
3486+<para>
3487+
3488+There is actually not very much that can be preseeded for this stage of the
3489+installation. The only questions asked concern the installation of the kernel
3490+and the location of the base pre-configured filesystem for the installation.
3491+
3492+</para>
3493+
3494+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3495+# Configure a path to the preconfigured base filesystem. This can be used to
3496+# specify a path for the installer to retrieve the filesystem image that will
3497+# be deployed to disk and used as a base system for the installation.
3498+#d-i live-installer/net-image string /install/filesystem.squashfs
3499+
3500+# Configure APT to not install recommended packages by default. Use of this
3501+# option can result in an incomplete system and should only be used by very
3502+# experienced users.
3503+#d-i base-installer/install-recommends boolean false
3504+
3505+# The kernel image (meta) package to be installed; "none" can be used if no
3506+# kernel is to be installed.
3507+#d-i base-installer/kernel/image string linux-generic
3508+</screen></informalexample>
3509+
3510+ </sect2>
3511+
3512+ <sect2 id="preseed-apt">
3513+ <title>Apt setup</title>
3514+<para>
3515+
3516+Setup of the <filename>/etc/apt/sources.list</filename> and basic configuration
3517+options is fully automated based on your installation method and answers to
3518+earlier questions. You can optionally add other (local) repositories.
3519+
3520+</para>
3521+
3522+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3523+# You can choose to install restricted and universe software, or to install
3524+# software from the backports repository.
3525+#d-i apt-setup/restricted boolean true
3526+#d-i apt-setup/universe boolean true
3527+#d-i apt-setup/backports boolean true
3528+# Uncomment this if you don't want to use a network mirror.
3529+#d-i apt-setup/use_mirror boolean false
3530+# Select which update services to use; define the mirrors to be used.
3531+# Values shown below are the normal defaults.
3532+#d-i apt-setup/services-select multiselect security
3533+#d-i apt-setup/security_host string security.ubuntu.com
3534+#d-i apt-setup/security_path string /ubuntu
3535+
3536+# Additional repositories, local[0-9] available
3537+#d-i apt-setup/local0/repository string \
3538+# http://local.server/ubuntu &releasename; main
3539+#d-i apt-setup/local0/comment string local server
3540+# Enable deb-src lines
3541+#d-i apt-setup/local0/source boolean true
3542+# URL to the public key of the local repository; you must provide a key or
3543+# apt will complain about the unauthenticated repository and so the
3544+# sources.list line will be left commented out
3545+#d-i apt-setup/local0/key string http://local.server/key
3546+
3547+# By default the installer requires that repositories be authenticated
3548+# using a known gpg key. This setting can be used to disable that
3549+# authentication. Warning: Insecure, not recommended.
3550+#d-i debian-installer/allow_unauthenticated boolean true
3551+
3552+# Uncomment this to add multiarch configuration for i386
3553+#d-i apt-setup/multiarch string i386
3554+
3555+</screen></informalexample>
3556+
3557+ </sect2>
3558+
3559+ <sect2 id="preseed-pkgsel">
3560+ <title>Package selection</title>
3561+<para>
3562+
3563+You can choose to install any combination of tasks that are available.
3564+Available tasks as of this writing include:
3565+
3566+</para>
3567+
3568+<itemizedlist>
3569+<listitem><para>
3570+ <userinput>standard</userinput> (standard tools)
3571+</para></listitem>
3572+<listitem condition="supports-desktop"><para>
3573+ <userinput>ubuntu-desktop</userinput>
3574+</para></listitem>
3575+<listitem condition="supports-desktop"><para>
3576+ <userinput>kubuntu-desktop</userinput>
3577+</para></listitem>
3578+<listitem condition="supports-desktop"><para>
3579+ <userinput>edubuntu-desktop</userinput>
3580+</para></listitem>
3581+<listitem condition="supports-desktop"><para>
3582+ <userinput>lubuntu-desktop</userinput>
3583+</para></listitem>
3584+<listitem condition="supports-desktop"><para>
3585+ <userinput>ubuntu-gnome-desktop</userinput>
3586+</para></listitem>
3587+<listitem condition="supports-desktop"><para>
3588+ <userinput>xubuntu-desktop</userinput>
3589+</para></listitem>
3590+<listitem condition="supports-desktop"><para>
3591+ <userinput>ubuntu-mate-desktop</userinput>
3592+</para></listitem>
3593+<listitem><para>
3594+ <userinput>lamp-server</userinput>
3595+</para></listitem>
3596+<listitem><para>
3597+ <userinput>print-server</userinput> (print server)
3598+</para></listitem>
3599+</itemizedlist>
3600+
3601+<para>
3602+
3603+You can also choose to install no tasks, and force the installation of a
3604+set of packages in some other way. We recommend always including the
3605+<userinput>standard</userinput> task.
3606+
3607+</para><para>
3608+
3609+If you want to install some individual packages in addition to packages
3610+installed by tasks, you can use the parameter
3611+<classname>pkgsel/include</classname>. The value of this parameter can be
3612+a list of packages separated by either commas or spaces, which allows it
3613+to be used easily on the kernel command line as well. By default,
3614+recommended packages will not be installed; to change this, preseed
3615+<classname>pkgsel/install-recommends</classname> to true.
3616+
3617+</para><para>
3618+
3619+To install a different set of language packs, you can use the parameter
3620+<classname>pkgsel/language-packs</classname>. The value of this parameter
3621+should be a list of ISO-639 language codes. If not set, the language packs
3622+matching the language selected in the installer will be installed.
3623+
3624+</para>
3625+
3626+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3627+tasksel tasksel/first multiselect ubuntu-desktop
3628+#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect lamp-server, print-server
3629+#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect kubuntu-desktop
3630+
3631+# Individual additional packages to install
3632+#d-i pkgsel/include string openssh-server build-essential
3633+# Whether to upgrade packages after debootstrap.
3634+# Allowed values: none, safe-upgrade, full-upgrade
3635+#d-i pkgsel/upgrade select none
3636+
3637+# Language pack selection
3638+#d-i pkgsel/language-packs multiselect de, en, zh
3639+
3640+# Policy for applying updates. May be "none" (no automatic updates),
3641+# "unattended-upgrades" (install security updates automatically), or
3642+# "landscape" (manage system with Landscape).
3643+#d-i pkgsel/update-policy select none
3644+
3645+# Some versions of the installer can report back on what software you have
3646+# installed, and what software you use. The default is not to report back,
3647+# but sending reports helps the project determine what software is most
3648+# popular and include it on CDs.
3649+#popularity-contest popularity-contest/participate boolean false
3650+
3651+# By default, the system's locate database will be updated after the
3652+# installer has finished installing most packages. This may take a while, so
3653+# if you don't want it, you can set this to "false" to turn it off.
3654+#d-i pkgsel/updatedb boolean true
3655+</screen></informalexample>
3656+
3657+ </sect2>
3658+
3659+ <sect2 id="preseed-bootloader" arch="any-x86">
3660+ <title>Boot loader installation</title>
3661+
3662+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3663+<phrase arch="linux-any"># Grub is the default boot loader (for x86). If you want lilo installed
3664+# instead, uncomment this:
3665+#d-i grub-installer/skip boolean true
3666+# To also skip installing lilo, and install no bootloader, uncomment this
3667+# too:
3668+#d-i lilo-installer/skip boolean true</phrase>
3669+<phrase arch="kfreebsd-any;hurd-any"># To install no bootloader, uncomment this
3670+#d-i grub-installer/skip boolean true</phrase>
3671+
3672+# This is fairly safe to set, it makes grub install automatically to the MBR
3673+# if no other operating system is detected on the machine.
3674+d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean true
3675+
3676+# This one makes grub-installer install to the MBR if it also finds some other
3677+# OS, which is less safe as it might not be able to boot that other OS.
3678+d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean true
3679+
3680+# Due notably to potential USB sticks, the location of the MBR can not be
3681+# determined safely in general, so this needs to be specified:
3682+#d-i grub-installer/bootdev string /dev/sda
3683+# To install to the first device (assuming it is not a USB stick):
3684+#d-i grub-installer/bootdev string default
3685+
3686+# Alternatively, if you want to install to a location other than the mbr,
3687+# uncomment and edit these lines:
3688+#d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean false
3689+#d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean false
3690+#d-i grub-installer/bootdev string (hd0,1)
3691+# To install grub to multiple disks:
3692+#d-i grub-installer/bootdev string (hd0,1) (hd1,1) (hd2,1)
3693+
3694+# Optional password for grub, either in clear text
3695+#d-i grub-installer/password password r00tme
3696+#d-i grub-installer/password-again password r00tme
3697+# or encrypted using an MD5 hash, see grub-md5-crypt(8).
3698+#d-i grub-installer/password-crypted password [MD5 hash]
3699+
3700+# Use the following option to add additional boot parameters for the
3701+# installed system (if supported by the bootloader installer).
3702+# Note: options passed to the installer will be added automatically.
3703+#d-i debian-installer/add-kernel-opts string nousb
3704+</screen></informalexample>
3705+
3706+<para>
3707+
3708+An MD5 hash for a password for <classname>grub</classname> can be generated
3709+using <command>grub-md5-crypt</command>, or using the command from the
3710+example in <xref linkend="preseed-account"/>.
3711+
3712+</para>
3713+ </sect2>
3714+
3715+ <sect2 id="preseed-finish">
3716+ <title>Finishing up the installation</title>
3717+
3718+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3719+# During installations from serial console, the regular virtual consoles
3720+# (VT1-VT6) are normally disabled in /etc/inittab. Uncomment the next
3721+# line to prevent this.
3722+#d-i finish-install/keep-consoles boolean true
3723+
3724+# Avoid that last message about the install being complete.
3725+d-i finish-install/reboot_in_progress note
3726+
3727+# This will prevent the installer from ejecting the CD during the reboot,
3728+# which is useful in some situations.
3729+#d-i cdrom-detect/eject boolean false
3730+
3731+# This is how to make the installer shutdown when finished, but not
3732+# reboot into the installed system.
3733+#d-i debian-installer/exit/halt boolean true
3734+# This will power off the machine instead of just halting it.
3735+#d-i debian-installer/exit/poweroff boolean true
3736+</screen></informalexample>
3737+
3738+ </sect2>
3739+
3740+ <sect2 id="preseed-other">
3741+ <title>Preseeding other packages</title>
3742+
3743+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3744+# Depending on what software you choose to install, or if things go wrong
3745+# during the installation process, it's possible that other questions may
3746+# be asked. You can preseed those too, of course. To get a list of every
3747+# possible question that could be asked during an install, do an
3748+# installation, and then run these commands:
3749+# debconf-get-selections --installer > file
3750+# debconf-get-selections >> file
3751+</screen></informalexample>
3752+
3753+ </sect2>
3754+ </sect1>
3755+
3756+
3757+ <sect1 id="preseed-advanced">
3758+ <title>Advanced options</title>
3759+
3760+ <sect2 id="preseed-hooks">
3761+ <title>Running custom commands during the installation</title>
3762+<para>
3763+
3764+A very powerful and flexible option offered by the preconfiguration tools
3765+is the ability to run commands or scripts at certain points in the
3766+installation.
3767+
3768+</para><para>
3769+
3770+When the filesystem of the target system is mounted, it is available in
3771+<filename>/target</filename>. If an installation CD is used, when it is mounted
3772+it is available in <filename>/cdrom</filename>.
3773+
3774+</para>
3775+
3776+<informalexample role="example"><screen>
3777+# d-i preseeding is inherently not secure. Nothing in the installer checks
3778+# for attempts at buffer overflows or other exploits of the values of a
3779+# preconfiguration file like this one. Only use preconfiguration files from
3780+# trusted locations! To drive that home, and because it's generally useful,
3781+# here's a way to run any shell command you'd like inside the installer,
3782+# automatically.
3783+
3784+# This first command is run as early as possible, just after
3785+# preseeding is read.
3786+#d-i preseed/early_command string anna-install some-udeb
3787+# This command is run immediately before the partitioner starts. It may be
3788+# useful to apply dynamic partitioner preseeding that depends on the state
3789+# of the disks (which may not be visible when preseed/early_command runs).
3790+#d-i partman/early_command \
3791+# string debconf-set partman-auto/disk "$(list-devices disk | head -n1)"
3792+# This command is run just before the install finishes, but when there is
3793+# still a usable /target directory. You can chroot to /target and use it
3794+# directly, or use the apt-install and in-target commands to easily install
3795+# packages and run commands in the target system.
3796+#d-i preseed/late_command string apt-install zsh; in-target chsh -s /bin/zsh
3797+</screen></informalexample>
3798+
3799+ </sect2>
3800+
3801+ <sect2 id="preseed-seenflag">
3802+ <title>Using preseeding to change default values</title>
3803+<para>
3804+
3805+It is possible to use preseeding to change the default answer for a
3806+question, but still have the question asked. To do this the
3807+<firstterm>seen</firstterm> flag must be reset to <quote>false</quote> after
3808+setting the value for a question.
3809+
3810+<informalexample><screen>
3811+d-i foo/bar string value
3812+d-i foo/bar seen false
3813+</screen></informalexample>
3814+
3815+The same effect can be achieved for <emphasis>all</emphasis> questions by
3816+setting the parameter <classname>preseed/interactive=true</classname> at
3817+the boot prompt. This can also be useful for testing or debugging your
3818+preconfiguration file.
3819+
3820+</para><para>
3821+
3822+Note that the <quote>d-i</quote> owner should only be used for variables
3823+used in the installer itself. For variables belonging to packages installed
3824+on the target system, you should use the name of that package instead. See
3825+the footnote to <xref linkend="preseed-bootparms"/>.
3826+
3827+</para><para>
3828+
3829+If you are preseeding using boot parameters, you can make the installer ask
3830+the corresponding question by using the <quote>?=</quote> operator, i.e.
3831+<userinput><replaceable>foo</replaceable>/<replaceable>bar</replaceable>?=<replaceable>value</replaceable></userinput>
3832+(or <userinput><replaceable>owner</replaceable>:<replaceable>foo/bar</replaceable>?=<replaceable>value</replaceable></userinput>).
3833+This will of course only have effect for parameters that correspond to
3834+questions that are actually displayed during an installation and not for
3835+<quote>internal</quote> parameters.
3836+
3837+</para><para>
3838+
3839+For more debugging information, use the boot parameter
3840+<classname>DEBCONF_DEBUG=5</classname>.
3841+This will cause <classname>debconf</classname> to print much more detail
3842+about the current settings of each variable and about its progress through
3843+each package's installation scripts.
3844+
3845+</para>
3846+ </sect2>
3847+
3848+ <sect2 id="preseed-chainload">
3849+ <title>Chainloading preconfiguration files</title>
3850+<para>
3851+
3852+It is possible to include other preconfiguration files from a preconfiguration
3853+file. Any settings in those files will override pre-existing settings from
3854+files loaded earlier. This makes it possible to put, for example, general
3855+networking settings for your location in one file and more specific
3856+settings for certain configurations in other files.
3857+
3858+</para>
3859+
3860+<informalexample><screen>
3861+# More than one file can be listed, separated by spaces; all will be
3862+# loaded. The included files can have preseed/include directives of their
3863+# own as well. Note that if the filenames are relative, they are taken from
3864+# the same directory as the preconfiguration file that includes them.
3865+#d-i preseed/include string x.cfg
3866+
3867+# The installer can optionally verify checksums of preconfiguration files
3868+# before using them. Currently only md5sums are supported, list the md5sums
3869+# in the same order as the list of files to include.
3870+#d-i preseed/include/checksum string 5da499872becccfeda2c4872f9171c3d
3871+
3872+# More flexibly, this runs a shell command and if it outputs the names of
3873+# preconfiguration files, includes those files.
3874+#d-i preseed/include_command \
3875+# string if [ "`hostname`" = bob ]; then echo bob.cfg; fi
3876+
3877+# Most flexibly of all, this downloads a program and runs it. The program
3878+# can use commands such as debconf-set to manipulate the debconf database.
3879+# More than one script can be listed, separated by spaces.
3880+# Note that if the filenames are relative, they are taken from the same
3881+# directory as the preconfiguration file that runs them.
3882+#d-i preseed/run string foo.sh
3883+</screen></informalexample>
3884+
3885+<para>
3886+
3887+It is also possible to chainload from the initrd or file preseeding phase,
3888+into network preseeding by setting preseed/url in the earlier files.
3889+This will cause network preseeding to be performed when the network comes
3890+up. You need to be careful when doing this, since there will be two
3891+distinct runs at preseeding, meaning for example that you get another
3892+chance to run the preseed/early command, the second one happening after the
3893+network comes up.
3894+
3895+</para>
3896+
3897+ </sect2>
3898+ </sect1>
3899+</appendix>
3900
3901=== added file 'fr/appendix/random-bits.xml'
3902--- fr/appendix/random-bits.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
3903+++ fr/appendix/random-bits.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
3904@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
3905+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
3906+<!-- $Id: random-bits.xml 69241 2014-08-19 20:04:33Z holger-guest $ -->
3907+
3908+<appendix id="random-bits"><title>Random Bits</title>
3909+
3910+&files.xml;
3911+&chroot-install.xml;
3912+&plip.xml;
3913+&pppoe.xml;
3914+
3915+</appendix>
3916
3917=== added file 'fr/bookinfo.xml'
3918--- fr/bookinfo.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
3919+++ fr/bookinfo.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
3920@@ -0,0 +1,76 @@
3921+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
3922+<!-- $Id: bookinfo.xml 69691 2015-03-23 22:15:59Z sthibault $ -->
3923+
3924+<bookinfo id="debian_installation_guide">
3925+<title>&debian-gnu; Installation Guide</title>
3926+
3927+<abstract>
3928+<para>
3929+This document contains installation instructions for the &debian-gnu;
3930+&release; system (codename <quote>&longreleasename;</quote>),
3931+for the &arch-title; (<quote>&architecture;</quote>)
3932+architecture. It also contains pointers to more information and
3933+information on how to make the most of your new &debian; system.
3934+</para>
3935+
3936+<para>
3937+<warning condition="not-checked"><para>
3938+This installation guide is based on an earlier manual written for
3939+the old Debian installation system (the <quote>boot-floppies</quote>), and has
3940+been updated to document the new Debian installer. However, for
3941+&architecture;, the manual has not been fully updated and fact checked
3942+for the new installer. There may remain parts of the manual that are
3943+incomplete or outdated or that still document the boot-floppies
3944+installer. A newer version of this manual, possibly better documenting
3945+this architecture, may be found on the Internet at the
3946+<ulink url="&url-d-i;">&d-i; home page</ulink>. You may also be able
3947+to find additional translations there.
3948+</para></warning>
3949+
3950+<note condition="checked"><para>
3951+Although this installation guide for &architecture; is mostly up-to-date,
3952+we plan to make some changes and reorganize parts of the manual after the
3953+official release of &releasename;. A newer version of this manual may be
3954+found on the Internet at the <ulink url="&url-d-i;">&d-i; home page</ulink>.
3955+You may also be able to find additional translations there.
3956+</para></note>
3957+</para>
3958+
3959+<para condition="translation-status">
3960+Translators can use this paragraph to provide some information about
3961+the status of the translation, for example if the translation is still
3962+being worked on or if review is wanted (don't forget to mention where
3963+comments should be sent!).
3964+
3965+See build/lang-options/README on how to enable this paragraph.
3966+Its condition is "translation-status".
3967+</para>
3968+</abstract>
3969+
3970+<copyright>
3971+ <year>2004 &ndash; &current-year;</year>
3972+ <holder>the Debian Installer team</holder>
3973+</copyright>
3974+<copyright>
3975+ <year>2004</year>
3976+ <year>2005</year>
3977+ <year>2006</year>
3978+ <year>2007</year>
3979+ <year>2008</year>
3980+ <year>2009</year>
3981+ <year>2010</year>
3982+ <year>2015</year>
3983+ <year>2018</year>
3984+ <holder>Canonical Ltd.</holder>
3985+</copyright>
3986+
3987+<legalnotice>
3988+<para>
3989+
3990+This manual is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it
3991+under the terms of the GNU General Public License. Please refer to the
3992+license in <xref linkend="appendix-gpl"/>.
3993+
3994+</para>
3995+</legalnotice>
3996+</bookinfo>
3997
3998=== added directory 'fr/boot-installer'
3999=== added file 'fr/boot-installer/accessibility.xml'
4000--- fr/boot-installer/accessibility.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
4001+++ fr/boot-installer/accessibility.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
4002@@ -0,0 +1,197 @@
4003+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
4004+<!-- $Id: accessibility.xml 70074 2015-11-15 12:56:16Z sthibault $ -->
4005+
4006+ <sect1 id="boot-installer-accessibility" arch="not-s390">
4007+ <title>Accessibility</title>
4008+<para>
4009+
4010+Some users may need specific support because of e.g. some visual
4011+impairment.
4012+<phrase arch="ia64;powerpc;ppc64el;x86">USB braille displays are detected
4013+automatically (not serial displays connected via a serial-to-USB converter),
4014+but most other</phrase>
4015+<phrase arch="arm;hppa;mips;mipsel;sparc">Most</phrase>
4016+accessibility features have to be enabled manually.
4017+<phrase arch="x86">On machines that support it, the boot menu emits a beep
4018+when it is ready to receive keystrokes.</phrase>
4019+Some boot parameters can <phrase arch="x86">then</phrase> be appended to
4020+enable accessibility features<phrase arch="x86"> (see also
4021+<xref linkend="boot-screen"/>)</phrase>.
4022+Note that on most architectures the boot loader interprets your keyboard as
4023+a QWERTY keyboard.
4024+
4025+</para>
4026+
4027+ <sect2>
4028+ <title>Installer front-end</title>
4029+<para>
4030+
4031+The &debian; installer supports several front-ends for asking questions, with
4032+varying convenience for accessibility: notably, <userinput>text</userinput>
4033+uses plain text while <userinput>newt</userinput> uses text-based dialog
4034+boxes. The choice can be made at the boot prompt, see the documentation for
4035+<userinput>DEBIAN_FRONTEND</userinput> in <xref linkend="installer-args"/>.
4036+
4037+</para>
4038+ </sect2>
4039+
4040+ <sect2 arch="ia64;powerpc;ppc64el;x86">
4041+ <title>USB Braille Displays</title>
4042+<para>
4043+
4044+USB braille displays should be automatically detected. A textual version
4045+of the installer will then be automatically selected, and support for the
4046+braille display will be automatically installed on the target system.
4047+You can thus just press &enterkey; at the boot menu.
4048+Once <classname>brltty</classname> is started, you can choose a braille
4049+table by entering the preference menu. Documentation on key
4050+bindings for braille devices is available on the <ulink
4051+url="&url-brltty-driver-help;"><classname>brltty</classname> website</ulink>.
4052+
4053+</para>
4054+ </sect2>
4055+
4056+ <sect2 arch="ia64;powerpc;ppc64el;x86">
4057+ <title>Serial Braille Displays</title>
4058+<para>
4059+
4060+Serial braille displays cannot safely be automatically detected
4061+(since that may damage some of them). You thus need to append the
4062+<userinput>brltty=<replaceable>driver</replaceable>,<replaceable>port</replaceable></userinput>
4063+boot parameter to tell <classname>brltty</classname> which driver and port it
4064+should use. <replaceable>driver</replaceable> should be replaced by the
4065+two-letter driver code for your terminal (see the
4066+<ulink url="&url-brltty-manual;">BRLTTY manual</ulink>).
4067+<replaceable>port</replaceable> should be replaced by the name of the
4068+serial port the display is connected to, <userinput>ttyS0</userinput> is
4069+the default, <userinput>ttyUSB0</userinput> can be typically used when using a serial-to-USB converter.
4070+A third parameter can be provided, to choose the name of the
4071+braille table to be used (see the <ulink url="&url-brltty-manual;">BRLTTY
4072+manual</ulink>); the English table is the default. Note that the table can
4073+be changed later by entering the preference menu. A fourth parameter
4074+can be provided to pass parameters to the braille driver, such as
4075+<userinput>protocol=foo</userinput> which is needed for some rare models.
4076+Documentation on key
4077+bindings for braille devices is available on the <ulink
4078+url="&url-brltty-driver-help;"><classname>brltty</classname> website</ulink>.
4079+
4080+</para>
4081+ </sect2>
4082+
4083+
4084+ <sect2 arch="x86">
4085+ <title>Software Speech Synthesis</title>
4086+<para>
4087+
4088+Support for software speech synthesis is available on all installer images which
4089+have the graphical installer, i.e. all netinst, CD and DVD images, and the
4090+netboot gtk variant. It can be activated by selecting it in the
4091+boot menu by typing <userinput>s</userinput> &enterkey;. The textual version
4092+of the installer will then be automatically selected, and support for software
4093+speech synthesis will be automatically installed on the target system.
4094+
4095+</para><para>
4096+
4097+The first question (language) is spoken in english, and the remainder
4098+of installation is spoken in the selected language (if available in
4099+<classname>espeak</classname>).
4100+
4101+</para><para>
4102+
4103+The default speech rate is quite slow. To make it faster, press
4104+<keycombo><keycap>CapsLock</keycap><keycap>6</keycap></keycombo>.
4105+To make it slower, press
4106+<keycombo><keycap>CapsLock</keycap><keycap>5</keycap></keycombo>.
4107+
4108+The default volume should be medium. To make it louder, press
4109+<keycombo><keycap>CapsLock</keycap><keycap>2</keycap></keycombo>.
4110+To make it quieter, press
4111+<keycombo><keycap>CapsLock</keycap><keycap>1</keycap></keycombo>.
4112+
4113+To get more details on the browsing shortcuts, see the
4114+<ulink url="&url-speakup-guide;">Speakup guide</ulink>.
4115+
4116+</para>
4117+ </sect2>
4118+
4119+ <sect2 arch="x86">
4120+ <title>Hardware Speech Synthesis</title>
4121+<para>
4122+
4123+Support for hardware speech synthesis devices is available on all installer
4124+images which have the graphical installer, i.e. all netinst, CD and DVD images,
4125+and the netboot gtk variant. You thus need to select a <quote>Graphical
4126+install</quote> entry in the boot menu.
4127+
4128+</para><para>
4129+
4130+Hardware speech synthesis devices cannot be automatically detected. You
4131+thus need to append the
4132+<userinput>speakup.synth=<replaceable>driver</replaceable></userinput>
4133+boot parameter to tell <classname>speakup</classname> which driver it should
4134+use. <replaceable>driver</replaceable> should be replaced by the driver code
4135+for your device (see <ulink url="&url-speakup-guide;">driver code
4136+list</ulink>). The textual version of the installer will then be
4137+automatically selected, and support for the speech synthesis device will be
4138+automatically installed on the target system.
4139+
4140+</para>
4141+ </sect2>
4142+
4143+ <sect2 arch="linux-any"><title>Board Devices</title>
4144+<para>
4145+
4146+Some accessibility devices are actual boards that are plugged inside the
4147+machine and that read text directly from the video memory. To get them
4148+to work framebuffer support must be disabled by using the
4149+<userinput arch="x86">vga=normal</userinput> <userinput>fb=false</userinput>
4150+boot parameter. This will however reduce the number of available languages.
4151+
4152+</para><para arch="x86">
4153+
4154+If desired a textual version of the bootloader can be activated before adding
4155+the boot parameter by typing <userinput>h</userinput> &enterkey;.
4156+
4157+</para>
4158+ </sect2>
4159+
4160+ <sect2><title>High-Contrast Theme</title>
4161+<para>
4162+
4163+For users with low vision, the installer can use a high-contrast
4164+color theme that makes it more readable. To enable it, append the
4165+<userinput>theme=dark</userinput> boot parameter.
4166+
4167+</para>
4168+ </sect2>
4169+
4170+ <sect2><title>Zoom</title>
4171+<para>
4172+
4173+For users with low vision, the graphical installer has a very basic zoom support: the
4174+<keycombo><keycap>Control</keycap> <keycap>+</keycap></keycombo> and
4175+<keycombo><keycap>Control</keycap> <keycap>-</keycap></keycombo> shortcuts
4176+increase and decrease the font size.
4177+
4178+</para>
4179+ </sect2>
4180+
4181+ <sect2><title>Preseeding</title>
4182+<para>
4183+
4184+Alternatively, &debian; can be installed completely automatically by using
4185+preseeding. This is documented in <xref linkend="appendix-preseed"/>.
4186+
4187+</para>
4188+ </sect2>
4189+
4190+ <sect2><title>Accessibility of the installed system</title>
4191+<para>
4192+
4193+Documentation on accessibility of the installed system is available on the
4194+<ulink url="&url-debian-wiki-accessibility;">Debian Accessibility wiki page</ulink>.
4195+
4196+</para>
4197+ </sect2>
4198+
4199+ </sect1>
4200
4201=== added file 'fr/boot-installer/arm.xml'
4202--- fr/boot-installer/arm.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
4203+++ fr/boot-installer/arm.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
4204@@ -0,0 +1,524 @@
4205+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
4206+<!-- $Id: arm.xml 69885 2015-05-06 20:43:47Z holger-guest $ -->
4207+
4208+
4209+ <sect2 arch="armhf;armel" id="boot-image-formats">
4210+ <title>Boot image formats</title>
4211+ <para>
4212+ On ARM-based systems in most cases one of two formats for boot images
4213+ is used: a) standard Linux zImage-format kernels
4214+ (<quote>vmlinuz</quote>) in conjunction with standard Linux initial
4215+ ramdisks (<quote>initrd.gz</quote>) or b) uImage-format kernels
4216+ (<quote>uImage</quote>) in conjunction with corresponding initial
4217+ ramdisks (<quote>uInitrd</quote>).
4218+ </para>
4219+ <para>
4220+ uImage/uInitrd are image formats designed for the U-Boot firmware that
4221+ is used on many ARM-based systems (mostly 32-bit ones). Older U-Boot versions can only
4222+ boot files in uImage/uInitrd format, so these are often used on
4223+ older armel systems. Newer U-Boot versions can - besides booting
4224+ uImages/uInitrds - also boot standard Linux kernels and ramdisk images,
4225+ but the command syntax to do that is slightly different from that
4226+ for booting uImages.
4227+ </para>
4228+ <para>
4229+ For systems using a multiplatform kernel, besides kernel and initial
4230+ ramdisk a so-called device-tree file (or device-tree blob,
4231+ <quote>dtb</quote>) is needed. It is specific to each supported system
4232+ and contains a description of the particular hardware. The dtb
4233+ should be supplied on the device by the firmware, but in practice a
4234+ newer one often needs to be loaded.
4235+ </para>
4236+ </sect2>
4237+
4238+ <sect2 arch="armhf" id="armhf-console-setup">
4239+ <title>Console configuration</title>
4240+ <para>
4241+ The <phrase condition="not-ubuntu">netboot tarball (<xref
4242+ linkend="boot-armhf-netboot.tar.gz"/>), and the installer
4243+ SD-card </phrase>images <phrase condition="not-ubuntu">(<xref
4244+ linkend="boot-installer-sd-image"/>) </phrase>use
4245+ the (platform-specific) default console that is defined by
4246+ U-Boot in the <quote>console</quote> variable. In most cases
4247+ that is a serial console, so on those platforms you by default
4248+ need a serial console cable to use the installer.
4249+ </para>
4250+ <para>
4251+ On platforms which also support a video console, you can modify the
4252+ U-Boot <quote>console</quote> variable accordingly if you would like
4253+ the installer to start on the video console.
4254+ </para>
4255+ </sect2>
4256+
4257+ <sect2 arch="arm64" id="arm64-console-setup">
4258+ <title>Console configuration</title>
4259+ <para>
4260+ The graphical installer is not enabled on the arm64 &d-i; images
4261+ for &release; so the serial console is used. The console device
4262+ should be detected automatically from the firmware, but if it is
4263+ not then after you boot linux from the GRUB menu you will see a
4264+ <quote>Booting Linux</quote> message, then nothing more.
4265+ </para>
4266+ <para>
4267+ If you hit this issue you will need to set a specific console
4268+ config on the kernel command line. Hit <userinput>e</userinput>
4269+ for <quote>Edit Kernel command-line</quote> at the GRUB menu, and change
4270+ <informalexample><screen>--- quiet</screen></informalexample> to
4271+ <informalexample><screen>console=&lt;device&gt;,&lt;speed&gt;</screen></informalexample>
4272+ e.g. <informalexample><screen>console=ttyAMA0,115200n8</screen></informalexample>.
4273+ When finished hit <keycombo><keycap>Control</keycap>
4274+ <keycap>x</keycap></keycombo> to continue booting with new
4275+ setting.
4276+ </para>
4277+ </sect2>
4278+
4279+ <sect2 arch="arm64" id="juno-installation">
4280+ <title>Juno Installation</title>
4281+ <para>
4282+ Juno has UEFI so the install is straightforward. The most
4283+ practical method is installing from USB stick. You need up to
4284+ date firmware for USB-booting to work. Builds from <ulink
4285+ url="&url-juno-firmware;">&url-juno-firmware;</ulink> after March
4286+ 2015 tested OK. Consult Juno documentation on firmware updating.
4287+ </para>
4288+ <para>
4289+ Prepare a standard arm64 CD image on a USB stick. Insert it in
4290+ one of the USB ports on the back. Plug a serial cable into the
4291+ upper 9-pin serial port on the back. If you need networking
4292+ (netboot image) plug the ethernet cable into the socket on the
4293+ front of the machine.
4294+ </para>
4295+ <para>
4296+ Run a serial console at 115200, 8bit no parity, and boot the
4297+ Juno. It should boot from the USB stick to a GRUB menu.
4298+ The console config is not correctly detected on Juno so just hitting
4299+ return will show no kernel output. Set the console to
4300+<informalexample><screen>console=ttyAMA0,115200n8</screen></informalexample>
4301+ as described in (<xref linkend="arm64-console-setup"/>). <keycombo><keycap>Control</keycap>
4302+<keycap>x</keycap></keycombo> to boot should show you the &d-i; screens,
4303+ and allow you to proceed with a standard installation.
4304+ </para>
4305+ </sect2>
4306+
4307+ <sect2 arch="arm64" id="apm-installation">
4308+ <title>Applied Micro Mustang Installation</title>
4309+ <para>
4310+ UEFI is available for this machine but it is normally shipped
4311+ with U-Boot so you will need to either install UEFI firmware
4312+ first then use standard boot/install methods, or use U-Boot boot
4313+ methods. Also USB is not supported in the jessie kernel so
4314+ installing from a USB stick does not work. You must use a serial
4315+ console to control the installation because the graphical
4316+ installer is not enabled on the arm64 architecture.
4317+ </para>
4318+ <para>
4319+ The recommended install method is to copy the &d-i; kernel and
4320+ initrd onto the hard drive, using the openembedded system
4321+ supplied with the machine, then boot from that to run the
4322+ installer. Alternatively use TFTP to get the kernel/dtb/initrd
4323+ copied over and booted (<xref linkend="boot-tftp-uboot"/>). After
4324+ installation, manual changes to boot from the installed image
4325+ are needed.
4326+ </para>
4327+ <para>
4328+ Run a serial console at 115200, 8bit no parity, and boot the
4329+ machine. Reboot the machine and when you see <quote>Hit any key to
4330+ stop autoboot:</quote> hit a key to get a Mustang# prompt. Then use
4331+ U-Boot commands to load and boot the kernel, dtb and initrd.
4332+ </para>
4333+ </sect2>
4334+
4335+
4336+ <sect2 arch="arm" id="boot-tftp"><title>Booting by TFTP</title>
4337+
4338+&boot-installer-intro-net.xml;
4339+
4340+ <sect3 arch="arm" id="boot-tftp-uboot">
4341+ <title>TFTP-booting in U-Boot</title>
4342+ <para>
4343+ Network booting on systems using the U-Boot firmware consists of
4344+ three steps: a) configuring the network, b) loading the images
4345+ (kernel/initial ramdisk/dtb) into memory and c) actually executing
4346+ the previosly loaded code.
4347+ </para>
4348+ <para>
4349+ First you have to configure the network, either automatically via
4350+ DHCP by running
4351+<informalexample><screen>
4352+setenv autoload no
4353+dhcp
4354+</screen></informalexample>
4355+ or manually by setting several environment variables
4356+<informalexample><screen>
4357+setenv ipaddr &lt;ip address of the client&gt;
4358+setenv netmask &lt;netmask&gt;
4359+setenv serverip &lt;ip address of the tftp server&gt;
4360+setenv dnsip &lt;ip address of the nameserver&gt;
4361+setenv gatewayip &lt;ip address of the default gateway&gt;
4362+</screen></informalexample>
4363+ If you prefer, you can make these settings permanent by running
4364+<informalexample><screen>
4365+saveenv
4366+</screen></informalexample>
4367+ </para>
4368+ <para>
4369+ Afterwards you need to load the images (kernel/initial
4370+ ramdisk/dtb) into memory. This is done with the tftpboot command,
4371+ which has to be provided with the address at which the image
4372+ shall be stored in memory. Unfortunately the memory map can vary
4373+ from system to system, so there is no general rule which addresses
4374+ can be used for this.
4375+ </para>
4376+ <para>
4377+ On some systems, U-Boot predefines a set of environment variables
4378+ with suitable load addresses: kernel_addr_r, ramdisk_addr_r and
4379+ fdt_addr_r. You can check whether they are defined by running
4380+<informalexample><screen>
4381+printenv kernel_addr_r ramdisk_addr_r fdt_addr_r
4382+</screen></informalexample>
4383+ If they are not defined, you have to check your system's
4384+ documentation for appropriate values and set them manually. For
4385+ systems based on Allwinner SunXi SOCs (e.g. the Allwinner A10,
4386+ architecture name <quote>sun4i</quote> or the Allwinner A20,
4387+ architecture name <quote>sun7i</quote>), you can e.g. use the
4388+ follwing values:
4389+<informalexample><screen>
4390+setenv kernel_addr_r 0x46000000
4391+setenv fdt_addr_r 0x47000000
4392+setenv ramdisk_addr_r 0x48000000
4393+</screen></informalexample>
4394+ </para>
4395+ <para>
4396+ When the load addresses are defined, you can load the images
4397+ into memory from the previously defined tftp server with
4398+<informalexample><screen>
4399+tftpboot ${kernel_addr_r} &lt;filename of the kernel image&gt;
4400+tftpboot ${fdt_addr_r} &lt;filename of the dtb&gt;
4401+tftpboot ${ramdisk_addr_r} &lt;filename of the initial ramdisk image&gt;
4402+</screen></informalexample>
4403+ </para>
4404+ <para>
4405+ The third part is setting the kernel commandline and actually
4406+ executing the loaded code. U-Boot passes the content of the
4407+ <quote>bootargs</quote> environment variable as commandline to the
4408+ kernel, so any parameters for the kernel and the installer - such as
4409+ the console device (see <xref linkend="boot-console"/>) or
4410+ preseeding options (see <xref linkend="installer-args"/> and <xref
4411+ linkend="appendix-preseed"/>) - can be set with a command like
4412+<informalexample><screen>
4413+setenv bootargs console=ttyS0,115200 rootwait panic=10
4414+</screen></informalexample>
4415+ The exact command to execute the previously loaded code depends on
4416+ the image format used. With uImage/uInitrd, the command is
4417+<informalexample><screen>
4418+bootm ${kernel_addr_r} ${ramdisk_addr_r} ${fdt_addr_r}
4419+</screen></informalexample>
4420+ and with native Linux images it is
4421+<informalexample><screen>
4422+bootz ${kernel_addr_r} ${ramdisk_addr_r}:${filesize} ${fdt_addr_r}
4423+</screen></informalexample>
4424+ </para>
4425+ <para>
4426+ Note: When booting standard linux images, it is important to load
4427+ the initial ramdisk image after the kernel and the dtb as U-Boot
4428+ sets the filesize variable to the size of the last file loaded and
4429+ the bootz command requires the size of the ramdisk image to work
4430+ correctly. In case of booting a platform-specific kernel, i.e. a
4431+ kernel without device-tree, simply omit the ${fdt_addr_r} parameter.
4432+ </para>
4433+ </sect3>
4434+
4435+ <sect3 arch="armhf" id="boot-armhf-netboot.tar.gz" condition="not-ubuntu">
4436+ <title>Pre-built netboot tarball</title>
4437+ <para>
4438+ &debian; provides a pre-built tarball (&armmp-netboot-tarball;)
4439+ that can simply be unpacked on your tftp server and contains
4440+ all files necessary for netbooting. It also includes a boot
4441+ script that automates all steps to load the installer. Modern
4442+ U-Boot versions contain a tftp autoboot feature that becomes
4443+ active if there is no bootable local storage device (MMC/SD,
4444+ USB, IDE/SATA/SCSI) and then loads this boot script from the
4445+ tftp server. Prerequisite for using this feature is that you
4446+ have a dhcp server in your network which provides the client
4447+ with the address of the tftp server.
4448+ </para>
4449+ <para>
4450+ If you would like to trigger the tftp autoboot feature from the
4451+ U-Boot commandline, you can use the follwing command:
4452+ <informalexample><screen>run bootcmd_dhcp</screen></informalexample>
4453+ </para>
4454+ <para>
4455+ To manually load the bootscript provided by the tarball, you can
4456+ alternatively issue the following commands at the U-Boot prompt:
4457+
4458+<informalexample><screen>
4459+setenv autoload no
4460+dhcp
4461+tftpboot ${scriptaddr} /ubuntu-installer/armhf/tftpboot.scr
4462+source ${scriptaddr}
4463+</screen></informalexample>
4464+
4465+ </para>
4466+ </sect3>
4467+ </sect2>
4468+
4469+
4470+ <sect2 arch="arm64" condition="bootable-usb" id="usb-boot">
4471+ <title>Booting from USB Memory Stick with UEFI</title>
4472+
4473+&boot-installer-intro-usb.xml;
4474+
4475+ </sect2>
4476+
4477+ <sect2 arch="armel;armhf" id="boot-hd-media">
4478+ <title>Booting from a USB stick in U-Boot</title>
4479+ <para>
4480+
4481+ Many modern U-Boot versions have USB support and allow booting from
4482+ USB mass storage devices such as USB sticks. Unfortunately the exact
4483+ steps required to do that can vary quite a bit from device to device.
4484+
4485+ </para>
4486+ <para>
4487+
4488+ U-Boot v2014.10 has introduced a common commandline handling and
4489+ autoboot framework. This allows building generic boot images that
4490+ work on any system implementing this framework. The &d-i; supports
4491+ installation from a USB stick on such systems, but unfortunately not
4492+ all platforms have adopted this new framework yet.
4493+
4494+ </para>
4495+ <para condition="not-ubuntu">
4496+
4497+ To build a bootable USB stick for installing &debian;, unpack the
4498+ hd-media tarball (see <xref linkend="where-files"/>) onto a
4499+ USB stick formatted with a filesystem supported by the U-Boot version
4500+ on your device. For modern U-Boot versions, any of FAT16 / FAT32 /
4501+ ext2 / ext3 / ext4 usually works. Then copy the ISO image file of the
4502+ first &debian; installation CD or DVD onto the stick.
4503+
4504+ </para>
4505+ <para>
4506+ The autoboot framework in modern U-Boot versions works similar to the
4507+ boot ordering options in a PC BIOS, i.e. it checks a list of possible
4508+ boot devices for a valid boot image and starts the first one it finds.
4509+ If there is no operating system installed, plugging in the USB stick
4510+ and powering up the system should result in starting the installer.
4511+ You can also initiate the USB-boot process any time from the U-Boot
4512+ prompt by entering the <quote>run bootcmd_usb0</quote> command.
4513+ </para>
4514+
4515+ <para>
4516+ One problem that can come up when booting from a USB stick while using
4517+ a serial console can be a console baudrate mismatch. If a console
4518+ variable is defined in U-Boot, the &d-i; boot script automatically
4519+ passes it to the kernel to set the primary console device and, if
4520+ applicable, the console baudrate. Unfortunately the handling of the
4521+ console variable varies from platform to platform - on some platforms,
4522+ the console variable includes the baudrate (as in
4523+ <quote>console=ttyS0,115200</quote>), while on other platforms the
4524+ console variable contains only the device (as in
4525+ <quote>console=ttyS0</quote>). The latter case leads to a garbled
4526+ console output when the default baudrate differs between U-Boot and
4527+ the kernel. Modern U-Boot versions often use 115200 baud while the
4528+ kernel still defaults to the traditional 9600 baud. If this happens,
4529+ you should manually set the console variable to contain the correct
4530+ baudrate for your system and then start the installer with the
4531+ <quote>run bootcmd_usb0</quote> command.
4532+ </para>
4533+ </sect2>
4534+
4535+ <sect2 arch="armhf" id="boot-installer-sd-image" condition="not-ubuntu">
4536+ <title>Using pre-built SD-card images with the installer</title>
4537+ <para>
4538+ For a number of systems, Debian provides SD card images that contain
4539+ both U-Boot and the &d-i;. These images are provided in two variants
4540+ - one for downloading the software packages over the network
4541+ (available at &armmp-netboot-sd-img;) and one for offline
4542+ installations using a Debian CD/DVD (available at
4543+ &armmp-hd-media-sd-img;). To save space and network bandwidth, the
4544+ images consist of two parts - a system-dependent part named
4545+ <quote>firmware.&lt;system-type&gt;.img.gz</quote>, and a
4546+ system-independent part named <quote>partition.img.gz</quote>.
4547+ </para>
4548+ <para>
4549+ To create a complete image from the two parts on Linux systems, you
4550+ can use zcat as follows:
4551+
4552+ <informalexample><screen>zcat firmware.&lt;system-type&gt;.img.gz partition.img.gz > complete_image.img</screen></informalexample>
4553+
4554+ On Windows systems, you have to first decompress the two parts
4555+ separately, which can be done e.g. by using 7-Zip, and then
4556+ concatenate the decompressed parts together by running the command
4557+
4558+ <informalexample><screen>copy /b firmware.&lt;system-type&gt;.img + partition.img complete_image.img</screen></informalexample>
4559+
4560+ in a Windows CMD.exe window.
4561+ </para>
4562+ <para>
4563+ Write the resulting image onto an SD card, e.g. by running the
4564+ following command on a Linux system:
4565+
4566+ <informalexample><screen>cat complete_image.img > /dev/SD_CARD_DEVICE</screen></informalexample>
4567+
4568+ After plugging the SD card into the target system and powering the
4569+ system up, the installer is loaded from the SD card. If you use the
4570+ hd-media variant for offline installations, you must provide the
4571+ installer with access to the first &debian; CD/DVD on a separate
4572+ medium, which can e.g. be a CD/DVD ISO image on a USB stick.
4573+ </para>
4574+ <para>
4575+ When you come to the partitioning step in the installer (see <xref
4576+ linkend="di-partition"/>), you can delete or replace any previous
4577+ partitions on the card. Once the installer is started, it runs
4578+ completely in the system's main memory and does not need to access the
4579+ SD card anymore, so you can use the full card for installing &debian;.
4580+ The easiest way to create a proper partition layout on the SD card is
4581+ to let the installer automatically create one for you (see
4582+ <xref linkend="partman-auto"/>).
4583+ </para>
4584+ </sect2>
4585+
4586+<!-- # None of the arm systems supported in Jessie is able to boot from
4587+ # CD/DVD -> commenting out the "Booting from CD-ROM section" for arm
4588+
4589+ <sect2 arch="arm"><title>Booting from CD-ROM</title>
4590+
4591+&boot-installer-intro-cd.xml;
4592+
4593+ </sect2>
4594+-->
4595+
4596+<!--
4597+
4598+ <sect2 arch="arm" id="boot-firmware"><title>Booting from Firmware</title>
4599+
4600+&boot-installer-intro-firmware.xml;
4601+
4602+ <sect3 arch="arm" id="boot-firmware-ss4000e">
4603+ <title>Booting the SS4000-E</title>
4604+<para>
4605+
4606+Due to limitations in the SS4000-E firmware, it unfortunately is not
4607+possible to boot the installer without the use of a serial port at
4608+this time. To boot the installer, you will need a serial nullmodem
4609+cable; a computer with a serial port<footnote id="arm-s4ke-port">
4610+
4611+<para>
4612+A USB serial converter will also work.
4613+</para>
4614+
4615+</footnote>; and a ribbon cable with a male DB9 connector at one end,
4616+and a 10-pin .1" IDC header at the other<footnote id="arm-s4k-rib">
4617+
4618+<para>
4619+This cable is often found in older desktop machines with builtin 9-pin
4620+serial ports.
4621+</para>
4622+
4623+</footnote>.
4624+
4625+</para><para>
4626+
4627+To boot the SS4000-E, use your serial nullmodem cable and the ribbon
4628+cable to connect to the serial port of the SS4000-E, and reboot the
4629+machine. You need to use a serial terminal application to communicate
4630+with the machine; a good option on a &debian; GNU/Linux is to use the
4631+<command>cu</command> program, in the package of the same name. Assuming
4632+the serial port on your computer is to be found on
4633+<filename>/dev/ttyS0</filename>, use the following command line:
4634+
4635+</para>
4636+
4637+<informalexample><screen>
4638+cu -lttyS0 -s115200
4639+</screen></informalexample>
4640+
4641+<para>
4642+
4643+If using Windows, you may want to consider using the program
4644+<classname>hyperterminal</classname>. Use a baud rate of 115200,
4645+8 bits word length, no stop bits, and one parity bit.
4646+
4647+</para><para>
4648+
4649+When the machine boots, you will see the following line of output:
4650+
4651+</para>
4652+
4653+<informalexample><screen>
4654+No network interfaces found
4655+
4656+EM-7210 ver.T04 2005-12-12 (For ver.AA)
4657+== Executing boot script in 1.000 seconds - enter ^C to abort
4658+</screen></informalexample>
4659+
4660+<para>
4661+
4662+At this point, hit Control-C to interrupt the boot
4663+loader<footnote id="arm-s4ke-sec">
4664+
4665+<para>
4666+Note that you have only one second to do so; if you miss this window,
4667+just powercycle the machine and try again.
4668+</para>
4669+
4670+</footnote>. This will give you the RedBoot prompt. Enter the
4671+following commands:
4672+
4673+<informalexample><screen>
4674+load -v -r -b 0x01800000 -m ymodem ramdisk.gz
4675+load -v -r -b 0x01008000 -m ymodem zImage
4676+exec -c "console=ttyS0,115200 rw root=/dev/ram mem=256M@0xa0000000" -r 0x01800000
4677+</screen></informalexample>
4678+
4679+</para><para>
4680+
4681+After every <command>load</command> command, the system will expect a
4682+file to be transmitted using the YMODEM protocol. When using cu, make
4683+sure you have the package <classname>lrzsz</classname> installed, then
4684+hit enter, followed by the <quote>~&lt;</quote> escape sequence to start
4685+an external program, and run <command>sb initrd.gz</command> or
4686+<command>sb vmlinuz</command>.
4687+
4688+</para><para>
4689+
4690+Alternatively, it is possible to load the kernel and ramdisk using
4691+HTTP rather than YMODEM. This is faster, but requires a working HTTP
4692+server on the network. To do so, first switch the bootloader to RAM mode:
4693+
4694+<informalexample><screen>
4695+fis load rammode
4696+g
4697+</screen></informalexample>
4698+
4699+</para><para>
4700+
4701+This will seemingly restart the machine; but in reality, it loads
4702+redboot to RAM and restarts it from there. Not doing this step will cause
4703+the system to hang in the necessary ip_address step that comes next.
4704+
4705+</para><para>
4706+
4707+You will need to hit Ctrl-C again to interrupt the boot. Then:
4708+
4709+<informalexample><screen>
4710+ip_address -l <replaceable>192.168.2.249</replaceable> -h <replaceable>192.168.2.4</replaceable>
4711+load -v -r -b 0x01800000 -m http /initrd.gz
4712+load -v -r -b 0x01008000 -m http /zImage
4713+exec -c "console=ttyS0,115200 rw root=/dev/ram mem=256M@0xa0000000" -r 0x01800000
4714+</screen></informalexample>
4715+
4716+Where <replaceable>192.168.2.249</replaceable> is the IP address of the
4717+installed system and <replaceable>192.168.2.4</replaceable> the IP address
4718+of the HTTP server containing the kernel and ramdisk files.
4719+
4720+</para><para>
4721+
4722+The installer will now start as usual.
4723+
4724+</para>
4725+ </sect3>
4726+ </sect2>
4727+
4728+-->
4729
4730=== added file 'fr/boot-installer/boot-installer.xml'
4731--- fr/boot-installer/boot-installer.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
4732+++ fr/boot-installer/boot-installer.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
4733@@ -0,0 +1,49 @@
4734+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
4735+<!-- $Id: boot-installer.xml 69732 2015-04-12 19:00:09Z sthibault $ -->
4736+
4737+<chapter id="boot-installer"><title>Booting the Installation System</title>
4738+
4739+<!-- Include only archs that are documented to avoid build-errors -->
4740+<!-- The arch="..." condition can be deleted when al archs are present -->
4741+ <sect1 arch="arm;any-x86;ia64;mips;mipsel;s390;powerpc;ppc64el;sparc">
4742+ <title>Booting the Installer on &arch-title;</title>
4743+
4744+<!-- This info is so architecture dependent, that I have turned the -->
4745+<!-- structure inside out for this chapter. Each arch has a document. -->
4746+<!-- Note: arch hppa is currently missing -->
4747+
4748+<warning arch="any-x86;powerpc"><para>
4749+
4750+If you have any other operating systems on your system that you wish to
4751+keep (dual boot setup), you should make sure that they have been properly
4752+shut down <emphasis>before</emphasis> you boot the installer.
4753+Installing an operating system while another operating system is in
4754+hibernation (has been suspended to disk) could result in loss of, or damage
4755+to the state of the suspended operating system which could cause problems
4756+when it is rebooted.
4757+
4758+</para></warning>
4759+<note condition="gtk"><para>
4760+
4761+For information on how to boot the graphical installer, see
4762+<xref linkend="graphical"/>.
4763+
4764+</para></note>
4765+
4766+&boot-installer-arm.xml;
4767+<!-- &boot-installer-hppa.xml; -->
4768+&boot-installer-x86.xml;
4769+&boot-installer-ia64.xml;
4770+&boot-installer-mips.xml;
4771+&boot-installer-mipsel.xml;
4772+&boot-installer-s390.xml;
4773+&boot-installer-powerpc.xml;
4774+&boot-installer-sparc.xml;
4775+
4776+ </sect1>
4777+
4778+&boot-installer-accessibility.xml;
4779+&boot-installer-parameters.xml;
4780+&boot-installer-trouble.xml;
4781+
4782+</chapter>
4783
4784=== added file 'fr/boot-installer/hppa.xml'
4785--- fr/boot-installer/hppa.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
4786+++ fr/boot-installer/hppa.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
4787@@ -0,0 +1,12 @@
4788+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
4789+<!-- $Id: hppa.xml 24701 2005-01-03 01:47:56Z fjpop-guest $ -->
4790+
4791+ <sect2 arch="hppa">
4792+ <title></title>
4793+<para>
4794+
4795+<!-- Placeholder document; please write and include in
4796+ boot-installer.xml and build/templates/docstruct.ent -->
4797+
4798+</para>
4799+ </sect2>
4800
4801=== added file 'fr/boot-installer/ia64.xml'
4802--- fr/boot-installer/ia64.xml 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
4803+++ fr/boot-installer/ia64.xml 2018-05-15 13:23:20 +0000
4804@@ -0,0 +1,464 @@
4805+<!-- retain these comments for translator revision tracking -->
4806+<!-- $Id: ia64.xml 64916 2010-10-08 22:15:00Z holger-guest $ -->
4807+
4808+ <sect2 arch="ia64"><title>Booting from a CD-ROM</title>
4809+
4810+&boot-installer-intro-cd.xml;
4811+
4812+ <note>
4813+ <title>CD Contents</title>
4814+
4815+<para>
4816+
4817+There are three basic variations of &debian; Install CDs.
4818+The <emphasis>Business Card</emphasis> CD has a minimal installation
4819+that will fit on the small form factor CD media.
4820+It requires a network connection in order to install the rest of the
4821+base installation and make a usable system.
4822+The <emphasis>Network Install</emphasis> CD has all of the packages
4823+for a base install but requires a network connection to a &debian;
4824+mirror site in order to install the
4825+extra packages one would want for a complete system .
4826+The set of &debian; CDs can install a complete system from the wide
4827+range of packages without needing access to the network.
4828+</para>
4829+ </note>
4830+
4831+<para>
4832+
4833+The IA-64 architecture uses the next generation Extensible Firmware Interface
4834+(EFI) from Intel.
4835+Unlike the traditional x86 BIOS which knows little about the boot
4836+device other than the partition table and Master Boot Record (MBR),
4837+EFI can read and write files from FAT16 or FAT32 formatted disk
4838+partitions.
4839+This simplifies the often arcane process of starting a system.
4840+The system boot loader and the EFI firmware that supports it have
4841+a full filesystem to store the files necessary for booting the
4842+machine.
4843+This means that the system disk on an IA-64 system has an additional
4844+disk partition dedicated to EFI instead of the simple MBR or boot
4845+block on more conventional systems.
4846+
4847+</para><para>
4848+
4849+The &debian; Installer CD contains a small EFI partition where the
4850+<command>ELILO</command> bootloader, its configuration file, the installer's
4851+kernel, and initial filesystem (initrd) are located.
4852+The running system also contains an EFI partition where the necessary
4853+files for booting the system reside.
4854+These files are readable from the EFI Shell as described below.
4855+
4856+</para><para>
4857+
4858+Most of the details of how <command>ELILO</command> actually loads and
4859+starts a system are transparent to the system installer.
4860+However, the installer must set up an EFI partition prior to installing
4861+the base system. Otherwise, the installation of <command>ELILO</command>
4862+will fail, rendering the system un-bootable.
4863+The EFI partition is allocated and formatted in the partitioning step
4864+of the installation prior to loading any packages on the system disk.
4865+The partitioning task also verifies that a suitable EFI partition is
4866+present before allowing the installation to proceed.
4867+
4868+</para><para>
4869+
4870+The EFI Boot Manager is presented as the last step of the firmware
4871+initialization.
4872+It displays a menu list from which the user can select
4873+an option.
4874+Depending on the model of system and what other software has been
4875+loaded on the system, this menu may be different from one system
4876+to another.
4877+There should be at least two menu items displayed,
4878+<command>Boot Option Maintenance Menu</command> and
4879+<command>EFI Shell (Built-in)</command>.
4880+Using the first option is preferred, however, if that
4881+option is not available or the CD for some reason does not
4882+boot with it, use the second option.
4883+
4884+</para>
4885+
4886+ <warning>
4887+ <title>IMPORTANT</title>
4888+<para>
4889+The EFI Boot Manager will select a default boot action, typically
4890+the first menu choice, within a pre-set number of seconds.
4891+This is indicated by a countdown at the bottom of the screen.
4892+Once the timer expires and the systems starts the default action,
4893+you may have to reboot the machine in order to continue the installation.
4894+If the default action is the EFI Shell, you can return to the Boot Manager
4895+by running <command>exit</command> at the shell prompt.
4896+</para>
4897+ </warning>
4898+
4899+ <sect3 arch="ia64" id="bootable-cd">
4900+ <title>Option 1: Booting from the Boot Option Maintenance Menu</title>
4901+<para>
4902+
4903+</para>
4904+
4905+<itemizedlist>
4906+
4907+<listitem><para>
4908+Insert the CD in the DVD/CD drive and reboot the machine.
4909+The firmware will display the EFI Boot Manager page and menu after
4910+it completes its system initialization.
4911+</para></listitem>
4912+
4913+<listitem><para>
4914+Select <command>Boot Maintenance Menu</command> from the menu
4915+with the arrow keys and press <command>ENTER</command>.
4916+This will display a new menu.
4917+</para></listitem>
4918+
4919+<listitem><para>
4920+Select <command>Boot From a File</command> from the menu
4921+with the arrow keys and press <command>ENTER</command>.
4922+This will display a list of devices probed by the firmware.
4923+You should see two menu lines containing either the label
4924+<command>Debian Inst [Acpi ...</command> or
4925+<command>Removable Media Boot</command>.
4926+If you examine the rest of the menu line, you will notice that
4927+the device and controller information should be the same.
4928+</para></listitem>
4929+
4930+<listitem><para>
4931+You can choose either of the entries that refer to the CD/DVD
4932+drive.
4933+Select your choice with the arrow keys and press <command>ENTER</command>.
4934+If you choose <command>Removable Media Boot</command> the machine
4935+will immediately start the boot load sequence.
4936+If you choose <command>Debian Inst [Acpi ...</command> instead, it
4937+will display a directory listing of the bootable portion of the
4938+CD, requiring you to proceed to the next (additional) step.
4939+</para></listitem>
4940+
4941+<listitem><para>
4942+You will only need this step if you chose
4943+<command>Debian Inst [Acpi ...</command>.
4944+The directory listing will also show
4945+<command>[Treat like Removable Media Boot]</command> on the next to
4946+the last line.
4947+Select this line with the arrow keys and press <command>ENTER</command>.
4948+This will start the boot load sequence.
4949+</para></listitem>
4950+
4951+</itemizedlist>
4952+
4953+<para>
4954+
4955+These steps start the &debian; boot loader which will display a
4956+menu page for you to select a boot kernel and options.
4957+Proceed to selecting the boot kernel and options.
4958+
4959+</para>
4960+ </sect3>
4961+
4962+ <sect3 arch="ia64" id="boot-with-efi">
4963+ <title>Option 2: Booting from the EFI Shell</title>
4964+<para>
4965+
4966+If, for some reason, option 1 is not successful, reboot the machine
4967+and when the EFI Boot Manager screen appears there should be
4968+one option called <command>EFI Shell [Built-in]</command>.
4969+Boot the &debian; Installer CD with the following steps:
4970+
4971+</para>
4972+
4973+<itemizedlist>
4974+
4975+<listitem><para>
4976+Insert the CD in the DVD/CD drive and reboot the machine.
4977+The firmware will display the EFI Boot Manager page and menu after
4978+it completes system initialization.
4979+</para></listitem>
4980+
4981+<listitem><para>
4982+Select <command>EFI Shell</command> from the menu with the arrow keys
4983+and press <command>ENTER</command>.
4984+The EFI Shell will scan all of the bootable devices and display
4985+them to the console before displaying its command prompt.
4986+The recognized bootable partitions on devices will show a device name of
4987+<filename>fs<replaceable>n</replaceable>:</filename>.
4988+All other recognized partitions will be named
4989+<filename>blk<replaceable>n</replaceable>:</filename>.
4990+If you inserted the CD just before entering the shell, this may
4991+take a few extra seconds as it initializes the CD drive.
4992+</para>
4993+</listitem>
4994+
4995+<listitem><para>
4996+Examine the output from the shell looking for the CDROM drive.
4997+It is most likely the <filename>fs0:</filename> device although
4998+other devices with bootable partitions will also show up as
4999+<filename>fs<replaceable>n</replaceable></filename>.
5000+</para></listitem>
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